The composition of DHRP is equal to that of SGHRP, which consists of Panax ginseng radix, Cornu cervi parvum (CC), Angelicae gigantis radix (AGR), Ophiopogonis radix (OR, Liriope platyphylla), and Schisandrae fructus (SF) [2, 4], but the dose rate of each herb medicine is different. The major organized herbal medicines of DHRP are as follows:
Panax ginseng radix is the dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (family Aralicaceae). It has been used to tonify Qi, the spleen, and the lung, to tranquilize, to stimulate the secretion of body fluids to quench thirst, and to prevent shock and prostration. It has been demonstrated to excite and inhibit the central nervous system (CNS), to have cardiotonic, anti-fatigue, anti-shock, anti-aging, and anti-cancer effects, to strengthen anti-stress and immune functions, to stimulate hematogenesis, and to improve learning and memory [7-15].
CC is the hairy, young horn of a male deer or stag, Cervus nippon Temminck or Cervus elaphus L. (family Cervidae). It has been used to reinforce the vital function of the kidney’s yang, to strengthen bones and muscles, and to treat the loss of spontaneous seminal emission and strength, impotence, and leukorrhea due to deficiencies of vital functions caused by chronic diseases [7, 8]. Also, CC has been reported to stimulate the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, hematogenesis, and the immune and sexual functions, to strengthen learning and memory ability, and to protect against fatigue and aging [7, 8, 16, 17].
AGR is the root of Angelica gigas NAKAI (family Umbelliferae) and has been known as the best medicine in gynecology as it nourishes the blood. It has been used to nourish the blood and to invigorate the blood circulation for the treatment of menstrual disorders and as an emollient and laxative for chronic constipation of the aged and debilitated. It tonifies an aversion to cold, a fever, and deficiencies induced by consumptive disease [7, 8, 18]. It has been known for its anti-thrombotic, anti-anemic, vasodilation, and hypotensive functions. Furthermore, AGR has been shown to have possible effects on hematogenesis stimulation, immune function improvement, and excitement or inhibition of bronchial and uterine smooth muscles [8, 19-24].
OR is the root of Ophiopogon japonicas Ker.-Gawl or Liriope platphylla WANG et TANG (family Liliaceae). It is used to replenish the vital essence, to promote the secretion of body fluids, to stop coughing by soothing the lung for the treatment of dipsosis, dry throat, dry cough and bloody sputum, and to nourish the heart for the treatment of palpitation and fearfulness [7, 8]. OR has been suggested to have a possible effect when used to treat atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammation in autoimmune diabetes mellitus. It also has an immunomodulatory effect to protect against lung or liver injury and can be used to improve the lung’s capacity, to improve the production and the secretion of respiratory mucus, to reduce apoptosis, and to improve neuro protection of neuron cells at the hippocampus [25-34].
SF is the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis (Turez) Baillon (family Magnolicaceae) and causes contractions, arrests discharges, boosts Qi, engenderd fluid, tonifies the kidneys, and tranquilizes the heart [7, 8]. It has been used as an astringent for the treatment of dry cough, asthma, night sweating, liver hepatitis, seminal emission and chronic diarrhea; it has also been used as a tonic for neurasthenia . SF has been proposed to have hypotensive, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammation, and hypoglycemic effects, to suppress CNS, to protect liver function, and to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer [8, 35-40].
On the basis of the effect of the above herbs, DHRP can greatly tonify both the Qi and the blood system of the body. DHRP has an effect similar to that of SGHRP because DHRP has the same composition as the SGHRP herbs that tonify Qi, blood, fluid and humor. Thereby, we postulate that not only does DHRP produce healthy circulation that results in enhanced yang Qi, but also it can applied to treat diverse consumptive or intractable diseases due to Qi deficiency, blood deficiency, and Qi and blood deficiency, such as lassitude, gastric atony, chronic fatigue, stroke and cancer.
As MGP was developed for intravenous injection to enhance the effect of tonifying Qi and blood , DHRP was developed for intravenous administration to improve the effect of SGHRP . Not only has MGP been widely used intravenously in clinics in Korea, but also the safety of MGP has been proven by using intravenous single-dose toxicity test .
On the basis of our single-dose toxicity study, we conclude that intravenous injection of DHRP can be safe because all SD rats showed tolerance to doses over 20 mL/ kg. We secured the basic safety evidence that DHRP can be applied intravenously to patients with deficiency. However, further safety studies, such as 4-week recovery tests, 13- week, repeated intravenous dose toxicity tests and so on, and further efficacy studies will be needed in order to provide more conclusive results. In addition, we think DHRP can be injected into subcutaneous tissue or muscle to treat diseases, just as SGHRP can , because DHRP consists of SGHRP and has the same applications in clinics. Thus, safety and efficacy studies for different dose methods will be needed.