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Systematic Review

J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 149-185

Published online September 30, 2022 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

Copyright © The Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute.

Ethnomedicinal Practices and Traditional Medicinal Plants of Barak Valley, Assam: a systematic review

Pervej Alom Barbhuiya , Abdul Mannaf Laskar , Hemanga Mazumdar , Partha Pratim Dutta , Manash Pratim Pathak , Biplab Kumar Dey , Saikat Sen*

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Assam Down Town University, Guwahati, Assam, India

Correspondence to:Saikat Sen
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati 781026, Assam, India
Tel: +91-8638603899
E-mail: saikat.sen@adtu.in, saikat.pharm@rediffmail.com

Received: May 15, 2022; Revised: May 24, 2022; Accepted: June 10, 2022

This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives: The Barak Valley is well known for its rich diversity of medicinal plants. Ethnomedicinal practices are prominent among Barak Valley’s major and minor ethnic groups. This systemic review focuses on traditionally used medicinal plants found in the Barak Valley as reported in different ethnobotanical surveys.
Methods: We searched various databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, to find ethnomedicinal surveys conducted in the Barak Valley. The search was performed using different terms, including ethnomedicinal survey, folk medicine, indigenous knowledge, and Barak Valley. Potential articles were identified following the exclusion and inclusion criteria.
Results: A total of eight ethnobotanical surveys were included in this study. We identified a total of 216 plant species belonging to 167 genera and 87 families, which are widely used by the ethnic communities who live in the rural areas of Barak Valley for the treatment of various diseases and ailments.
Conclusion: Folk medicine is the result of decades of accumulated knowledge and practices by people who live in rural communities based on their needs and provides an important source of information to assist the search for new pharmaceuticals. Therefore, available information on traditional medicinal plants needs to be explored scientifically to find effective and alternative treatments for different diseases.

Keywords: barak valley, ethnobotanical survey, folk medicine, medicinal plants, systematic review

INTRODUCTION

The Barak Valley, located between 24°8’ and 25°8’N, 92°15’ and 93°15’E, is comprised of three districts of Assam; Cachar, Hailakandi, and Karimganj. This area is located in the Southern part of Northeast India and covers an area of 6,922 km2. Considering the physiography of the area, Barak Valley can be divided into different ecosystems, ranging from the high hills, whose elevation exceeds 300 meters, to the perennially water-logged wetlands. The Valley reports a warm, humid climate with an average annual rainfall of 2,440-4,100 mm, most of which is acquired during the southwest monsoon season spanning May to September [1]. A well-known feature of the Barak Valley is the rich diversity of medicinal plants found along the wetlands and floodplains, which are home to several tribes and other communities [2].

The Cachar district covers an area of 3,786 km2 and has a population density of 17,360, as per the census of 2011. There are many small rivers in the district flowing from Manipur or Mizoram. The main river is the Barak, from which the name Barak Valley is derived. The district’s forests are the Barail and Inner line reserves. The Hailakandi district covers an area of 1,327 km2 with a population size of 6,59,296 per the 2011 census. The Dhaleswari river is the main river of the district and flows north through the center of the district. The Inner line reserved forest and the Katakhal reserved forest make up the district’s reserves. The Kamriganj district has a geographical area of 1,809 km2 and a population of 12,28,686 as per the census of 2011. The Kushiyara river runs through the Kamriganj district on the district’s northern border with Bangladesh [1].

The Barak Valley is a customary territory for various ethnic groups. Bengali Hindus and Muslim communities account for most of the ethnic groups in the Barak Valley. The other communities or tribes include the Manipuri, Mizo, Barman, Riang, Hmar, Vaiphei, Kuki, Dimasa, Assamese, Jaintia, Chorai, Hrangkhol, Karbi, Naga, and Chirus [2-4].

Humans have used plants to cure diseases and relieve physical agony since before recorded history [5]. Plants have been used as medicinal agents initially based on anecdotal evidence and then later developed into single-agent drugs via scientific methods [6]. Science and technology have experienced significant advances since the turn of the century. Plants used as folk medicines have helped identify plants to further scientifically investigate, reducing the time for new drug discoveries. Still, much of the population living in remote areas rely on herbal medicine as their primary means of healthcare [7].

There are many ethnic groups in India with diverse backgrounds, and it has been reported that approximately 400 tribes and ethnic groups make up India’s rural population. Most of India’s tribes and ethnic groups reside in rural areas and forests and rely heavily on the indigenous system of medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes the use of plants by different ethnic groups around the world [8, 9]. Therefore, this paper focuses on a systematic documentation of ethnomedicinal practices, and folk use of medicinal plants in Barak Valley, Assam.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

1. Data sources and search strategy

Using ethnobotanical surveys, this review compiled medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine. This study was performed following the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) [10].

Discerning pertinent articles for this study was done while focusing on the main objectives of this systematic review. Google Scholar, PubMed, Springer, and Scopus databases were searched to locate relevant literature. The search was filtered without regard to duration or publication date and was last updated on January 31st, 2022.

Specific keyword combinations included “ethnomedicinal survey” OR “ethnobotanical uses” OR “folk medicine” OR “ethnobotanical survey” OR “indigenous knowledge” OR “traditional knowledge” AND “medicinal plants” OR “Barak Valley” OR “Specific state of Barak Valley” as well as free-text words were used in the search.

2. Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Ethnomedicinal studies and surveys that reported plants used traditionally in treating various diseases were included in this review. The inclusion criteria for the articles were full-length research articles published in English and ethnobotanical surveys conducted in the Barak Valley region of Assam. The exclusion criteria included articles published in other languages, review articles, articles on ethnoveterinary use, and articles published in platforms or forums other than scientific journals.

3. Data selection

In the first phase of article selections, a manual evaluation of journal article titles and abstracts was performed by four different authors to include the articles related to the topic. All potentially qualified papers were examined again by other authors. A third author’s opinion was considered in cases of discrepancies. The data selection process is given in Fig. 1.

Figure 1. Flow chart of the references selected.

4. Data analysis and reporting

A detailed evaluation of the literature search data was conducted, and data, including the plant name, family, local name or vernacular name, parts used, reported traditional uses, detail of informants, and area of the survey was epitomized. Based on the scope of this systematic review, no specific analytical tools were used.

RESULTS

Various databases were preliminarily searched and 185 records were identified. Using different criteria, including title, abstract, and other criteria at different stages, 95 articles were selected. In addition, duplicate entries and records other than journal publications were excluded. As a result, eight ethnobotanical survey journal articles were analyzed and included in this systematic review.

A total of 216 plants were reported in the eight ethnobotanical surveys that are used by the local people, communities, and tribes of the Barak Valley. The 216 plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes are listed in Table 1 [11-14], along with the family, parts used for treatment, details of the informants, and availability.

M, Manipuri; MZ, Mizo; BN, Bengali; AS, Assam..

*Sl no 1 and 27 are the same..

&md=tbl&idx=1' data-target="#file-modal"">Table 1

Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Barak Valley, Assam.

Sl
no
Plant nameFamilyVernacular namePart usedFolk usesInformantsAvailabilityReference
1.*Averrhoa carambola L.OxalidaceaeKamrenga (BN)FruitRipe fruits are taken to cure jaundice.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
2.Acanthus
leucostachys Wallich
AcanthaceaeMussali (BN)LeafLeaf paste is applied externally in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
3.Achyranthes aspera L.AmaranthaceaeKathapatta (BN)
Obhat kata (AS)
Leaf, twigLeaf juice used internally in otorrhea. Young twig paste used as bandage in external wounds, injury.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Stem, leafStem and leaf juice is useful in jaundice. Leaf juice is used in menstruation trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
4.Acorus calamus L.AraceaeBoch (AS)Not mentionedDried powder mixed with honey and taken in morning as stimulant.Old peopleDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
5.Adhatoda vasica NeesAcanthaceaeVasaka (BN)LeafLeaf juice is used to cure or relieve cough.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafLeaf juice is used in cough.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Twig, leaf, bulbTwigs are used in diabetes. Fresh leaves used to develop resistance against poison. Paste of bulb used to cure gastric troubles. Leaves are used to cure cough, fever and itching.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafLeaf is used in jaundice, used with honey for cough, asthma.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
6.Aegle marmelos (L.) CorreaRutaceaeBel (BN)Fruit, leaf, rootRipen fruit shake used in stomach troubles. Leaf paste used in forehead against intermittent fever. Root, leaf extract used in diarrhoea and blood dysentery.Old people in the societyDistricts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
LeafLeaf juice mixed with black pepper and taken to get relief from piles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf juice with Piper longum taken orally against cold cough.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
FruitFruits are taken to cure dysenteryVillage headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
7.Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeGendali bon (AS)Whole plantLeaf juice is applied externally in fresh cuts and wounds and in eye trouble. Plant juice is taken orally once daily in jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
8.Allium sativum L.LiliaceaeRasun (BN)BulbBulb is good for stomach problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Bulb, leafBulb paste is applied on injuries to remove pus.
Bulb is used to maintain blood pressure, and paralysed body part.
Leaf base are used to cure dysentery, gastric troubles and stomach worms.
Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamrang a village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
BulbUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
BulbBulb paste mixed with mustard oil is used to reduce body ache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
9.Alocasia indica RoxbAraceaeHong-ngoo (M)RhizomeUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
10.Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. DonAraceaeHong-ngo (M)Rhizome, petioleRhizome is used in bee bite. Petiole is used in poisonous bite.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
11.Aloe barbadensis W. MillerLiliaceaeGhritakumari (BN)LeafLeaf juice useful in leucorrhea, hair growth and tuberculosis-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
12.Alpinia malaacensis Burm. f.ZingiberaceaeMurta (BN)LeafYoung bud is used to cure ear problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villages of Barak ValleyLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
13.Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd.ZingiberaceaeKulajan (BN)Whole plantPlant extract is used as abortifacient. Paste used for curing ringworm and rheumatic pain.Old people in the societyDistricts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
14.Alstonia scholaris(L) R.Br.ApocynaceaeChaituang (MZ)BarkBark paste with honey is used to cure fever.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Leaf, latex, barkLeaf is used against headache. Latex is applied in allergy and abscesses. Bark used against stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
15.Alternanthera sessilis (L.) Br. ex. DC.AmaranthaceaeAkllencha (BN)Stem, leafStem and leaf paste is applied against snake bite.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
16.Amaranthus spinosus L.AmaranthaceaeKhentyimy ra (MZ)Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful in dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
17.Amaranthus virides L.AmaranthaceaeTanduliva (MZ)Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful against small pox.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
18.Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.BromeliaceaeAnaras (BN)
Keehom (M)
LeafLeaf juice mixed with salt and given to child to cure worm infection.Village headman, medicine menVarious villages of Barak ValleyLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Fruit, leafRipe fruit is used to cure cough. Young leaves are used to treat breathing problems.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafYoung leaf juice taken orally against worm-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
19.Andrographis paniculata (Burman f.) Wallich ex NeesAcanthaceaeKalmeg (BN)Leaf, twigPaste of leaves and twigs are used for hair growing.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful in dysentery. Leaf juice is taken orally in fever and stomach trouble. Stem juice is taken to eradicate worms.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Leaf, whole plantLeaf extract is used in asthma and bronchitis. Whole plant is soaked in water overnight and taken for curing worms and stomach pain.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
TwigTwigs are used in fever, cough and liver troublesHerbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
LeafFresh juice of the leaves along with honey is prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri community of Barak ValleyChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
20.Angiopteris evecta (G. Froster) HoffmannAngiopterida­ceaeGokur (M)RhizomeRhizome is useful in piles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
21.Annona squamosa L.AnnonaceaeSitaphala m (MZ)LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
22.Apama tomentosa (Bl.) EnglAristolochiaceaeAkpati (BN)StemStem juice is used as tonic.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
23.Areca catechu L.ArecaceaeKwa (BN)NutUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
24.Argemone mexicana L.PapaveraceaeSiyalkata (BN)RootRoot juice is useful in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
25.Artocarpus chama Buch.-HamMoraceaeChamkatha l (BN)BarkBark extract is used in jaundice. Dried fruit powder is used in diabetes.Old people in the societyDifferent istrictsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
26.Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.MoraceaeBohot (AS)Leaf, bark, fruitDried leaf and bark powder are used in malaria. Fruit is used in stomach troubles.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
27.*Averrhoa carambolaL.OxalidaceaeTheiher-awt (MZ)
Kadamba (BN)
FruitFruits are useful in jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages
of Cachar district
Das et al., 2008 [2]
BarkBark extract used as tonic.-Hailakadi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
28.Azadirecta indica A. JussieuMeliaceaeNeem (BN)LeafFresh leaves are useful household remedy in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Twig, leafTwig is used in pyorrhea.
Leaves used in stomach diseases, small pox, malarial fever, skin disease.
Local people, herbalist and traditional healersMashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
Leaf, bark, seedLeaf is used against skin diseases. Leaf juice is useful in diabetes. Bark juice is used against worms. Seed oil is used for abortion.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
FruitFruits used in jaundice.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
LeafLeaf juice is taken to cure malaria.The village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Leaf, seedUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
29.Bacopa monnieri (L.)Wettst.Scrophularia­ceaeBrahmisagPlantPlant juice is used as nerve tonic and in asthma. Paste is bandaged as snake antidote.Old people in the society.Districts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
30.Bambusa tulda RoxbPoaceaeNim (BN)Wax, hairWax and hairs are applied directly on injured body part to check bleeding.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafLeaves used in skin diseases.
Seed oil for abortion.
-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
31.Bauhinia purpurea L.CaesalpiniaceaeKanchan (BN)BarkBark juice with honey is taken orally against leucorrhoea.
Bark juice is also useful in menstruation trouble.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
32.Begonia roxburghii (Miq.) DCBegoniaceaeAlmikri (BN)Root, petiole, leafRoot, petiole and leaf are used against cough and fever.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
33.Benincasa hispida (Thunberg)CogniauxCucurbitaceaeTorbot (BN)FruitUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
34.Bixa orellana L.BixaceaeUreirom (M)BarkBark decoction has antipyretic effect.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
35.Blechnum orientale L.BlechnaceaeVobnam (MZ)Rhizome, frondRhizome and fronds are used in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
36.Bombax ceiba L.MalvaceaeSimul (BN)SeedSeed used in liver and stomach troubles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Flower fruit, budUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
37.Borreria hispida Spruce ex K. Schum.Rubiaceae-LeafLeaf juice is used as blood coagulant.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
38.Borussia javanica L.SimaroubaceaeHeining (MZ)Fruit, seedUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
39.Brassica camprestris L.BrassicaceaeChalgom (AS)LeafCooling of head, foot and palm. Absorption of clotted blood from any cut or injury.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
40.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) OkenCrassulaceaePathar chura (BN)LeafFresh leaf juice is taken orally against dysentery. Leaf paste is applied externally in cuts and wounds and on forehead to reduce headache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafUsed in treatment of dysentery, diabetes, problems related to uterus.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
41.Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill.FabaceaeAral (BN)LeafYoung leaf juice is useful in jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
42.Cajanus indicus Spreng.PapilionaceaeArahor (AS)LeafLeaf juice is used to cureVillage headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
43.Callicarpa arborea Roxb.VerbenaceaeHnahkiah (MZ)
Phul gamir (BN)
BarkBark is useful in diarrhea.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
44.Calotropis iarrhea Br.AsclepiadaceaeOpegamgoi (M)Leaf, flowerWarm leaves are applied externally against rheumatism. Flowers are applied in piles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
45.Calotropis procera (Aiton)W.T. AitonAsclepiadaceaeAkon (AS)Latex, whole plantLatex is applied externally in skin diseases. Plant juice is used for gastric problems, diarrhoea, stomach ulcers. UTI.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
46.Canna indica L.CannaceaeLaphurei (M)RootCrushed fresh root is given in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Leaf, aerial partsUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
47.Cannabis sativa L.CannabaceaeGunja (MZ)Leaf, flower, resinsUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
48.Capsicum frutescens L.SolanaceaeAkand (BN)LeafLeaves used in rheumatic pain-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
49.Carica papaya L.CaricaceaeKofol (BN)FruitFruit is used to cure stomach problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Fruit, flower, leaf, seedFruits used in dysentery.
Flower used in ear trouble.
Pseudo fruit mixed with the fruits of Melastoma malabathricum is taken orally against impotency. Leaf is used against toothache. Seeds are used for deworming.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
SeedUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
50.Cassia alata L.FabaceaeDuidubi (MZ)LeafPaste made by pounding fresh leaves and Allium satvum is applied allergy and abscesses.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
51.Cassia fistula L.FabaceaeSuvarnaka (M)FlowerDecoction of the flower is given in chronic fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Flower, seed, stem barkUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
52.Cassia occidentalis L.FabaceaeMeitarbi (MZ)Seed, leafSeed and leaf paste is applied externally on skin diseasesVillage chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar fistrictDas et al., 2008 [2]
53.Cassia tora L.FabaceaeThounam (M)Leaf, seedLeaves and seeds are applied on skin diseases.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar fistrictDas et al., 2008 [2]
54.Catharanthus roseus (L.)G. DonApocynaceaeNayantara (BN)LeafLeaf paste is applied on forehead to reduce headache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaves used in diabetes and fever.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
55.Centella asiatica (L.) UrbanApiaceaeThankuni (BN)LeafLeaf is taken raw to cure stomach problems. Rhizome is used in body pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Whole plant, leaf, rhizomeWhole plant is used in dysentery and digestive problems. Leaves are used for blood purification. Powder of dried leaf used in skin infections. Rhizome is used in fractured bone to get early relief.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
Whole plantUsed in blood purification, improving memory, amoebic dysentery, rheumatism, stomach ulcer, diarrhea, gastric, digestive problems, appetite and skin diseases.Local people, herbalist and traditional healersMashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
56.Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & RobinsonAsteraceaePholony (MZ)LeafLeaf juice is useful in fresh cuts and wounds. Young leaf paste is useful against headache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
57.Cinnamomum bejolghota (Buch.-Ham.) SweetLauraceaeJanglitej patha (BN)Leaf, barkLeaf & bark extracts are used in cough, cold and in liver troubles. Bark paste used in toothache.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
58.Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm.LauraceaeTejpatha (BN)Leaf, barkSoaked leaf is used as carminative. Leaf and bark extracts are used in diarrhoea and chronic dysentery.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Stem, bark, rootUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
Bark, leafBark and leaves are useful in diarrhea.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf juice useful in cough-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
59.Cissus quadrangularis L.VitaceaeHarjura lat (BN)ShootShoot paste is used to cure or joining of bones.Local people of the tribal communities, elderly women, Vaidyas/herbal practitionersVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
60.Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg)CucurbitaceaeTurmuz (BN)FruitUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
61.Citrus reticulata BlancoRutaceaeKomla (MZ)Fruit, rootUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
62.Clerodendron colebroo­kianumWalp.VerbenaceaeAnphui (MZ)LeafUsed to treat intestinal worm, blood pressure, blood sugar, skin diseases, cough, dysenteryLocal people, herbalist and traditional healersMashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
LeafJuice extracted are used to get rid of lice.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafBoiled leaves are taken to get relief from high blood pressure.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf decoction is used in hypertension, rheumatism and also as general tonicOld people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
63.Clerodendrum infortunatumVerbenaceaeKorobi (BN)Root, leafRoot paste is used as bandage in swelling. Leaf extract is used in stomach pain and malariaOld people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
64.Clerodendrum viscosum Vent.VerbenaceaeBati (BN)LeafYoung leaf juice is taken against diabetes. Young leaves mixed with rice flour is taken for deworming. Young leaf juice is taken early morning to control diabetes. Leaves are used in dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
65.Clitoria ternatea LinnFabaceaeAparajita (BN)RootRoot juice mixed with milk is taken orally against impotency. Seed used in stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaves used in jaundice and also against impotency-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
66.Cocos nucifera L.ArecaceaeNarikol (BN)
Daab (M)
FruitImmature fruit is used to cure dysponea.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Fruit, flowerUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
67.Coix lacrymajobi L.PoaceaeAngouba (M)RootUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
68.Combretum pilosum Roxb.CombretaceaeJuniloth (BN)LeafYoung leaves are taken for deworming.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
69.Coptis teeta Wall.RanunculaceaeUrihangam pal (M)LeafDecoction of leaves is prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
70.Cordia dichotoma ForsskalBoraginaceaeBahubara (BN)Leaf, fruitUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
71.Costus speciosus (Koening) SmithZingiberaceaeKeu (BN)LeafLeaf juice are given against snake bite.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Leaf, stemDried powdered leaf and young stem are used for curing piles.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Whole plantSpecific use not mentioned.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
72.Costus variegataZingiberaceaeKood (BN)Leaf, stemLeaf and stem extracts are taken for curing piles.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
73.Croton bonplan­dianum Bail.EuphorbiaceaePhotka (BN)Stem, latexStem latex is useful for fresh cuts and wounds to stop bleeding.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
74.Cucurma sps.ZingeberaceaeJangli Haldi (BN)RhizomeRhizome is used to cure body pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
75.Curculigo orchioides GaertnAmaryllidaceaeLairudamsla (R)
Bengthang (MZ)
RhizomeRhizome is useful in diarrhea and jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
76.Curcuma aromatica SalisbZingiberaceaeBanhalud (BN)RhizomeRhizome is used in constipation.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
77.Curcuma domestica ValetonZingiberaceaeHaldi (BN)RhizomeRhizome paste is rubbed on the injured body parts to reduce pain.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
78.Curcuma longa LZingiberaceaeYaingang (M)
Halud (BN)
RhizomeUsed in treatment of dhatu, urinal problem, cut or wound, body temperature, blood purification, cuts or wounds, and as appetizerLocal people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
RhizomeRhizome juice is used to treat piles and urinary tract infections.
Crushed rhizome is also used on wounded area for its antiseptic property.
Herbal practitioners or Kavirajs.Kamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
RhizomeJuice of the rhizome is useful in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Leaf, rhizomeUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
NMUsed against liver trouble and for healing of wound-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
79.Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.ConvolvulaceaeSwarnalata (M)Whole plantBoiled plant is considered in chronic fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
80.Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.PoaceaeDurba (MZ)LeafLeaf is used in cuts as antiseptic.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Whole plantPlant juice is taken orally against dysentery. Paste of the grass is used in fresh cuts and injuries to stop bleeding. Juice of the plant mixed with juice of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. flowers and taken in menstruation troubles. Plant paste is applied on forehead to reduce headache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
81.Cyperus rotundus LCyperaceaeShembang kaothum (M)RootCrushed extract of the roots is prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Whole plant, rhizomeUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
82.Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L) P. Beauv.GramineaePungphai (M)Whole plantJuice of the fresh plant is used in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
83.Datura metel L.SolanaceaeDhatura (BN)RootRoots are used in treatment of asthma.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafDried leaves used against skin diseases.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
84.Datura stramonium L.SolanaceaeDhutra (BN)SeedSeeds are taken once daily as the remedy for skin diseases.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaves used against asthma & skin diseases-Hailakan di districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
85.Dioscorea alata L.DioscoreaceaeChupri alu (BN)TuberTubers are used in pilesVillage chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
RhizomeUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
86.Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.AthyriaceaePaloi (BN)FrondYoung fronds are used as vegetable, which stimulate digestion.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
87.Docynia indica (Wall.) DecneRosaceae-FruitFruit is used to cure stomach problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
88.Dryopteris sp.Dryopteridaceae-LeafLeaf juice is used to cure body pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
89.Eclipta prostrata L.AsteraceaeKariya (BN)Whole plantWhole plant is used in fresh cuts and wounds.
Plant juice is useful for hair growth.
Stem and leaf juice is taken against constipation.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Uchishum bal (M)LeafJuice of the leaves along with the honey is recommended in feverVillage old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
90.Emblica officinalis Gaertn.EuphorbiaceaeAmlaki (BN)Seed, leaf, fruitSeeds are useful in menstruation trouble.
Leaves and fruits are used in diabetes. Fruit is useful in constipation.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Amlaki (BN)Leaf, fruitLeaves and fruits used in diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
91.Enhydra fluctuans Lour.AsteraceaeHincha (BN)StemStem is used in gastric and ulcers. Whole plant is useful in constipation.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
92.Equisetum debile RoxbEquisetaceaeLai utong (MZ)Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
93.Eugenia cumini (L.)MyrtaceaeJamFruitRipe fruit is eaten raw to cure diabetes.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
94.Eupatorium odoratum L.AsteraceaeKiRinga lota (AS)LeafLeaf by grinding is used to cure scar.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
95.Euphorbia hirta L.EuphorbiaceaeGakhir lota (AS)Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
96.Euphorbia nerifolia L.EuphorbiaceaeHiju (BN)LeafLeaves used against cough.-Hailakan di districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
97.Eupotorium cannabinumAsteraceaeTongol loti (AS)LeafLeaf juice is used to cure tooth pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
98.Ficus benghalensis L.MoraceaeBar (MZ)Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
99.Ficus religiosa L.MoraceaeAshwata (BN)Leaf, barkLeaf bark juice is used as tonic.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar distridctDas et al., 2008 [2]
Aswat (M)Root-bark, rootUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
100.Garcinia cowa Roxb. ex ChoisyClusaceaeBonthekra (BN)Leaf, fruitLeaf juice is used in diarrhoea. Raw fruits are used in dysentery.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
101.Globa multiflora WallichZingiberaceaeJungliada (BN)RhizomeRhizome useful in fresh cuts, wounds and swelling.
Rhizome paste is applied on forehead to reduce headache.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
102.Gloriosa superba L.ColchicaceaeAgnisikha (MZ)Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
103.Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) CorreaRutaceaeBonjamir (BN)LeafFresh leaf juice is useful in skin diseases.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
104.Gmelia arborea RoxbVerbenaceaeGamari (M)Leaf, stem, fruitUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
105.Goodyera procera (Ker Gawl.) Hook.Orchidaceae-Whole plantDysentery, bloody dysentery.Local people, herbalist and traditional healersMashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
106.Hedyotis diffusa Wild.RubiaceaeLimorui (M)Whole plantDecoction of the plant is recommended in intermittent fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
107.Helianthus annus L.AsteraceaeNumitlei (M)Leaf, flowerDecoction of the leaves and flowers along with honey is prescribed in malarial fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
108.Heliotropium indicum L.BoraginaceaeHatisura (BN)Root, leafRoot juice is useful against ophthalmia. Fresh leaf extract is applied externally in fresh cuts.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
109.Hibiscus abelmoschus L.MalvaceaeShamal moturi (M)LeafDecoction of the leaves is given in typhoid fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
110.Hibiscus mutabilis L.MalvaceaeRakta jaba (BN)FlowerPaste of flower applied externally to fresh cuts and wounds.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
111.Hibiscus rosa- sinensis L.MalvaceaeJaba (BN)FlowersFlowers paste is applied on fresh cuts and wounds. Extract of flowers is used in irregular menstruation trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
FlowerUsed in dysentery and diabetes.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
FlowerFlower is used to cure skin diseases.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
112.Homalomena aromatica (Roxb) SchottAraceaeGandikochu/ Gandkochu (BN)PetiolesPetioles taken as vegetable for purification of blood and healing of wound caused during child birth.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
113.Houttuynia cordata Thunb.SaururaceaeTengalai (BN)PlantWhole plant except root is taken for the purification of blood. Plant is used against jaundice and also as appetizer.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
114.Hoya globulosa Hook. f.Asclepiadaceae-LeafLeaf paste is applied on bone fracture.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
115.Hydrocotyl javanica Thunb.ApiaceaeKudmanko ni (BN)PlantWhole plant is useful in stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
116.Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.UmbelliferaeParuklei (M)PlantJuice of the plant along with honey is prescribed in typhoid fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
117.Hydrolea zeylanica LinnHydrophyllaceaeKasschra (M)Leaf, twigUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
118.Hyptis suaveolens (L.) PoitLamiaceaeBilati tulsi (BN)Twig, leafYoung twigs and leaf are useful against skin diseases.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
119.Hyptis suaveolens PoiretLamiaceaeNagatulsi/ Thukma (BN)NMUsed against stomach trouble and in constipation.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
120.Imperata cyllindrica LinnPoaceaeOolo (M)RootUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
121.Ipomoea aquatica ForsskålConvolvulaceaeKalmisak (BN)Leaf, twigUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
122.Ipomoea carnea Jacq.ConvolvulaceaeKalam (BN)PlantFresh milky juice of the plant is useful in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
123.Jatropha curcas L.EuphorbiaceaeLalbheren dha (MZ)Leaf, twigUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
124.Justicia adhatoda L.AcanthaceaeBoga bahak (AS)LeafUsed in treatment of cough, itch, fever, dysentery, cough, fever, bronchial congestion, muscular sprain, gout, itching, diabetes and as anti-venom.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
Nongman gkha (MZ)Leaf, flower, rootUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
125.Justicia gendarussaBurm.f.AcanthaceaeTita bahak (AS)LeafLeaf useful in bone fracture.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
126.Kalanchoe pinnata PersoonCrassulaceaePatharkuc hi (M)Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
127.Kyllinga triceps Rotlb.CyperaceaeChumthan g achouba (M)Whole plantDecoction of the plant is given in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
128.Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)CucurbitaceaePani lao (AS)LeafWarm leaves are wrapped on the boils to make pus out.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
129.Lantana camara L. var. aculeateVerbenaceaeJapnlao (MZ)LeafYoung leaves mixed with salt are eaten to stimulate digestion. Leaves are used in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
130.Lawsonia innermis L.LythraceaeMehendi (BN)LeafFine paste of the leaves is used to prevent snakebite.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafLeaf is used against hypertension-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
131.Leonurus sibiricus L.LamiaceaeRaktaron (BN)RootRoot used in stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
132.Leucas aspera Spreng.LamiaceaeDrun kalash (BN)TwigUsed in blood purification, skin diseases, cough, fever, stomach disorder, appetite, liver trouble and eye dropLocal people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
LeafLeaf used against stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
133.Lipia geminataH.B. & kunthVerbenaceaePichas ban (BN); Motka (BN)LeafFresh leaf juice is useful against fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
134.Macaranga denticulataMuell.-Arg.EuphorbiaceaeLoko (MZ)StemStem juice is useful in skin diseases, cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
135.Mangifera indica L.AnacardiaceaeAm (BN)LeafLeaf juice is taken against gastric problems, ulcers and diarrhoea.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
136.Melastoma malabath­ricum L.MelastomaceaeLoloti (BN) Taintong (R)Fruit, stemFruits are used as one of the ingredients in impotency. Stem is used in toothache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
137.Melia composita Willd.MeliaceaeGura Neem (BN)LeafLeaf is useful in stomach and liver troubles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
138.Mentha arvensis L.LamiaceaePudina (BN)LeafPounded leaves mixed with salt are eaten against stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf juice useful in stomach trouble-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
139.Michelia champaca L.MagnoliaceaeTita sopa (AS)Leaf, seedLeaf is used against colic.
Seed is used as appetizer and also in liver and stomach troubles.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
140.Mikania micarantha KunthAsteraceaeRepujiloth (BN)Plant, leafWhole plant except root is useful against diarrhoea.
Fresh leaf paste is applied externally in fresh cuts and wounds. Leaf juice is useful in eye trouble.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafCrushed leaves are used to stop bleeding. Leaf paste used in ring worm and other skin infectionsHerbal practitioners or
kavirajs
Kamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
141.Mikania cordata(Burm.f.)AsteraceaeRefujee lat (BN)LeafLeaf juice is used as blood coagulant.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
142.Mimordica charantia L.CucurbitaceaeKorola (MZ)LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
143.Mimosa pudica L.FabaceaeHlonuor (MZ)Leaf, rootLeaf juice is used externally on piles and boils. Leaf paste is applied on bone injuries as pain killer, and in tumor for early burst. Root juice mixed with fruit juice of Dillenia indica and honey, and taken to cure dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
144.Momordica charantia L.CucurbitaceaeKaranaakhabi (M)LeafLeaf juice is taken once daily in morning to control diabetes.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Leaf, fruitLeaf juice an dried fruit used in fever.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafFresh juice of the leaves is given in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
145.Moringa oleifera Lam.MoringaceaeShajna (M) Sajna (BN)Green stickGreen stick is good for stomach.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
BarkBark paste is used externally on the effected body parts to reduce rheumatic pain.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
BarkBark used against rheumatic pain.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
146.Morus australis Poirin Lam.MoraceaeTuthphol (BN)Fruit, rootFruits are useful in cough.
Root is used in jaundice.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
147.Musa balbisiana CollaMusaceaeAthiya Kol (AS)FlowerInflorosence is used to cure jaundiceHerbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
148.Musa paradisiaca L.MusaceaeKola (BN)FruitUnripe fruits used in dysentery and diarrhea-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
149.Nerium indicum Mill.ApocynaceaeKarabi (BN)LeafLeaf is used against skin diseases.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Karobi (BN)StemStem juice used in skin diseases-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
150.Nyctanthus arbor-tristis L.OleaceaeSefali (BN)
Singgralei (M)
Shiwli (MZ)
LeafLeaf juice mixed with honey are given to cure fever.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafLeaf extract taken orally against chronic fever and liver trouble.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
LeafJuice of the fresh leaves is prescribed in chronic fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
LeafLeaves are useful in liver trouble. Leaves are used in fever.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
151.Ocimum americanum L.LabiataeTulsiamuba (M)LeafJuice of the leaves along with the honey is given in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
152.Ocimum gratissimum L.LamiaceaeRamtulsi (M)
Ram-Tulsi (BN)
LeafJuice of the leaves along with honey prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Shoot, leafShoots are used to treat fever. Leaves are used to treat cough, rheumatism, flatulence, abdominal pain.Local people, herbalist and traditional healersMashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
153.Ocimum sanctum L.LamiaceaeBarpai (MZ)
Tulshi (BN)
LeafLeaf juice is used to cure cough.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Root, leafRoot is used against scorpion sting and snakebite. Leaf juice mixed with honey and taken to cure cough and fever.
Juice of tulsi, turmeric and onion is given to cure gout. Leaf juice is also used in constipation
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafJuice of leaves with honey is recommended in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
LeafLeaf juice with honey taken orally against cough and cold.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
154.Opuntia dillenii HaworthCactaceaeFanimansha (BN)PhyllocladePaste of phylloclade useful in burns.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
155.Oroxylon indicum (L.) KurzBignoniaceaeSona (BN)Bark, rootBark extract is used as hair tonic. Dried powdered root is used as anti-helminthic and carminative.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
156.Oxalis corniculata L.OxalidaceaeAmrul (BN)Whole plantWhole plant except root is used in eye trouble. Plant juice is taken against dysentery also applied on fresh cuts and injury to stop bleeding. Whole plant is used as appetizer.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
157.Parkia roxburghii G. Don.FabaceaeYong Chak (M)
Zwangta (MZ)
SeedGas problem of stomach.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
158.Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.FabaceaeKhorial (AS)Seed, podsSeeds are useful to removal of intestinal gas. Tender pods are used for intestinal disorder.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamrang village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
159.Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (Roxb) Nees.AcanthaceaeTita bahak (AS)LeafDecoction of the leaves is prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
160.Phlogacanthus tubiflorus NeesAcanthaceaeTitaphul (AS)LeafBoiled leaf juice is given in cough.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
161.Phyllanthus acidus L.PhyllanthaceaePomloki (AS)LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
162.Phyllanthus emblica L.PhyllanthaceaeAmlika (M)
Amlokhi (BN)
SeedsUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
FruitFruit is used to cure jaundice.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
163.Piper betle L.PiperaceaePan (BN)
Panamana (M)
LeafJuice of leaf is taken with honey to cure cough. Juice is also acts as blood coagulant on external application.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafJuice of the leaves along with the honey is useful in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local people and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
164.Piper nigrum L.PiperaceaeGulmarich (BN)SeedPowdered seed with palm candy taken orally against cough.-Hailakan di districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
165.Plumbago rosea L.Plumbagina­ceaeKengol (M)StemUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
166.Plumeria acuminata AitApocynaceaeGulich (BN)LeafLeaf is used in stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
167.Polygonum barbatum L.PolygonaceaeAnbon (MZ)StemStem is used in gastric trouble and ulcers.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
168.Pongamia glabra Vent.LeguminoceaeKaranja (BN)SeedOil from seed is good for skin.Village headman, medicine men.Various villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
169.Portulaca oleracea L.PortulacaceaeNunia Sag (BN)Stem, leafStem and leaves are used as appetizer.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
170.Pothos scandens L.AraceaeHaranga (BN)PlantWhole plant is used in bone fracture.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
171.Pouzolzia hirta (Bl.) Hassk.UrticaceaeChirchira (BN)LeafLeaf and stem are used as lactagogue.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
172.Psidium guajava L.MyrtaceaeKarthal (MZ)
Piyara (BN)
LeafTender leaves are taken to cure abdominal pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Root, barkRoot bark juice is useful in diarrhoea.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafJuice of young leaf taken orally against worms.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
173.Punica granatum L.PunicaceaeDalim (BN)LeafLeaf juice is taken orally in dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf juice taken orally against jaundice.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
174.Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.ApocynaceaeSarpagondha (AS)LeafLeaf juice is taken as soup for controlling high BP.Old people in societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
175.Ricinus communis L.EuphorbeaceaeMutih (MZ)
Barela (BN)
LeafLeaf is used to cure body ach.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Seed, leafSeed oil is used externally against rheumatism. Leaves are used against body ache and headacheVillage chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaves used against bleeding piles.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
176.Saccharum officinarum L.GraminaceaeKuiar (BN)StemJuice is taken in raw to cure jaundice.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
177.Santalum album LSantalaceaeChandan (BN)BarkUsed in headache, fever, skin disease, and warm sensation of head, feet, palms.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
178.Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De WildeCaesalpiniaceaeMaikampar (MZ)BarkBark juice is used as tonic.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
179.Saxifraga ligulata MurraySaxifragaceaePatharkuc hi (BN)RootRoot is used to cure stomach pain.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
180.Scoparia dulcis L.Scrophularia­ceaeBon dhonia (AS)Leaf, whole plantLeaf juice is used in jaundice. Plant juice is useful against irregular menstruation.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
181.Scutellaria discolor Coleb.LamiaceaeYenakhat (M)LeafFresh leaf juice is used against cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
182.Seasumum indicum L.PedaliaceaeTil (BN)SeedSeeds with fish is given to mother to increase lactation.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
183.Senna auriculata L.FabaceaeJayantri (AS)FlowerUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
184.Sida rhombifolia L.MalvaceaeBoriala (AS)Whole plantPlant extract is useful in rheumatism and urinary trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
185.Smilax macrophyla Willd.LiliaceaeKumarilota (BN)Stem, leafStem, young leaf extract is taken as general tonic. Dried powder is used against jaundice and urinary diseases.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
186.Solanum melongena L.SolanaceaeBengena (AS)FruitFruits are used to remove unwanted materials from boil.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
187.Solanum nigrum L.SolanaceaeKaikor (BN)Stem, leaf, seedStem and leaves are useful in constipation. Seeds are also used in liver trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
188.Solanum torvum SwartzSolanaceaeBhi tita (AS)Fruit, root, seedFruit paste is useful against headache. Root useful against fever and cough. Seeds useful in toothache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
189.Solanum virginianum L.SolanaceaeKantakari (BN)Leaf, fruitCough, bone and muscle pain, fever, dysentery, dyspepsia, tooth ache.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
190.Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl.SolanaceaeTita bekhuri (AS)RootRoot is used against small pox.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
191.Spilanthes calva DC.AsteraceaeHuhoni (AS)FlowerFresh flower is rubbed and kept near gums to cure the toothache.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
192.Spilanthes paniculata DC.AsteraceaeAnkacha (MZ)Stem, leaf, flowerYoung stem and leaf are taken for deworming, constipation and liver trouble. Fresh flower is applied against toothache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
193.Sterculia villosa Roxb.SterculiaceaeKhapui (MZ)RootRoot juice is used as tonic.
Root juice mixed with honey and taken orally against blood dysentery.
Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
194.Streblus asper LoureiroMoraceaeDoi-Shang (MZ)BarkUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
195.Swertia chirayita(Roxb.) Buch.-Ham.GentianaceaeChirata (AS)Leaf, stemLeaf, young stem soaked overnight in water and taken early morning as general tonic, also used in stomach ache, chronic fever, bronchial asthma, liver troubles.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
196.Swertia paniculata Wall.GentianaceaeNMWhole plantWhole plant soaked overnight in water is used in liver troubles, intestinal worms and malaria.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
197.Syzygium cumini (L.) SkeelsMyrtaceaeKalojam (BN)
Kala jam (M)
Leaf, seedYoung leaf juice is taken once daily in empty stomach to check blood sugar. Seed powder is given in diabetes.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Leaf, seedLeaf, seed juice taken orally against diabetes.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
Bark, fruit, seedsUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
198.Tabernae­montana divaricata (L) R.BrApocynaceaeJongli togor (BN)RootCure a wound area.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
BarkBark paste is useful in burns.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
199.Tagetes patula L.AsteraceaeGenda (BN)Leaf, whole plantLeaf juice is useful in fresh cuts and wounds. Plant juice used in dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
200.Tagtes erecta L.CompositaeNarji phul (BN)LeafJuice of the leaf is used for curing scar and cut.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
201.Tamarindus indica L.CaesalpiniaceaeTatol (BN) Tengtere (MZ)LeafLeaves boiling in water and taken cure urine problemVillage headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Seed, leafSeeds useful against snakebite. Leaf extract against rheumatismVillage chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
202.Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Weight & Arn.CombretaceaeArjun (BN)BarkBark is boiled and taken to cure tuberculosis.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Bark, stem, leafBark, young stem and leaf extract is used as cardiotonic, in high blood pressure and in liver complaints.Old people in the society.Districts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Bark, leafBark and leaf juice is useful in liver trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
BarkBark extract with milk taken orally to get relief from heart troubles.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
203.Terminalia bellirica RoxbCombretaceaeBohera (BN)FruitFruits used against piles and diarrhea.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
Leaf, stem, fruitLeaf and young stem juice is used in urinary troubles. Fruit juice is used for curing liver disorders and indigestion.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
204.Terminalia chebula RetzCombretaceaeHortoki (MZ)
Haritaki (BN)
FruitFruits used as appetizer are also applied against small pox.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
FruitFruit keeping in water in one night is used as purgative.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Bark, fruitBark, fruit juice is used as cardiotonic, purgative. Bark paste is used in skin ulcer, toothache.Old people in the society.Districts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
SeedsUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
FruitPaste of fruit made in iron pan applied externally promote hair growth.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
205.Thevetia nerifolia Juss.ApocynaceaeUtonglei (M)FruitOouter cover of fruits are prescribed in chronic fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
206.Tinospora cordifolia (Wild) Miers.Menispermac­eaeGulacha (BN)
Golancha (M)
Leaf, stemLeaf extract is used in diarrhoea, dysentery. Dried powdered stem is used in anaemia and urinary troubles.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Whole plantExtract of the whole plant used as antipyreticVillage old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
Whole plantPlant juice is useful against swelling. Stem juice is taken against gastric trouble and ulcer.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Leaf, barkUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
207.Torenia diffusa D. Don.Scrophulariac­eae-Whole plantWhole plant is used against headache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
208.Trigonella foenum-graecum L.FabaceaeMethee (M) (BN)Leaf, seedUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
209.Urena lobata L.MalvaceaeBachita (BN)RootRoot is useful against rheumatic pain.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
210.Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.AsteraceaeHiyalmutra (BN)LeafLeaf juice is useful in leucorrhoea.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
211.Vitex negundo L.VerbenaceaeTingpir (MZ)LeafLeaf juice boiled with garlic and mustard oil and applied externally to get relief from rheumatic pain.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
212.Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.AsteraceaeBhimraj Kesaraj (AS)Stem, leafStem and leaf juice is useful for hair growth.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
213.Xanthium strumarium L.AsteraceaeAgora (AS)FruitFruits are used against toothache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
214.Zingeber sp.ZingeberaceaeJangli Adha (BN)RhizomeJuice is taken after roasting for curing cough.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
215.Zingiber officinale RoscZingiberaceaeAda (AS)RhizomeRhizome juice is mixed with honey and prescribed in cold fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri communityChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
216.Ziziphus jujuba Lam.RhamnaceaeBagari bogori (AS)BarkBark juice is useful in stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
217.Zizyphus mauritiana LamarckRhamnaceaeBoroi/ Kul (BN)BarkBark is medicinally useful.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]

M, Manipuri; MZ, Mizo; BN, Bengali; AS, Assam..

*Sl no 1 and 27 are the same..



A detailed analysis divulged that the 216 plant species widely used by the locals, tribals, and other communities of the Barak Valley for the treatment of various diseases and ailments belong to 167 genera and 87 families. Out of the 216 plants identified in this systematic review, the Asteraceae family contributed 15 species making it the most prominent family of plants in this review, followed by Zingiberaceae and Fabaceae (11 each); Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Lamiaceae (8 each); Acanthaceae and Apocynaceae (7 each); Moraceae and Malvaceae (6); Araceae and Cucurbitaceae (5 each); Amaranthaceae, Combretaceae, and Poaceae (4 each); Liliaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Convolvulaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 each); Crassulaceae, Oxalidaceae, Piperaceae, Apiaceae, Arecaceae, Boraginaceae, Cyperaceae, Gentianaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Musaceae, Phyllanthaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Rubiaceae (2 each); and the remaining 48 families represented single species.

This review also revealed that the leaf is the most common part used for treating various diseases accounting for 39.26% of the cases. The leaf is used in decoctions, pastes, or directly to cure various ailments. The other common parts used for healing are fruit (9.93%), stem (8.77%), whole plant (8.54%), bark (7.62%), root (6.46%), seed (6.23%), flower (4.61%), rhizome (4.15%), bulb (1.15%), and latex (0.69%) (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Utilization of plant parts for their medicinal value.

It was also revealed that the various communities and tribes of the Barak Valley use different plant species to treat diabetes (62 species); fever (34 species); cuts and wounds (31 species); stomach troubles and ulcers (26 species); dysentery (25 species); cough (23 species); skin disease (19 species); jaundice (18 species); liver trouble (14 species); parasites (11 species); piles, tooth aches, headaches, and tonics (10 species each); gastric trouble, diarrhea, and constipation (8 species each); menstruation trouble, asthma, hair growth, urinary problems, appetizers, malaria, and muscle, stomach, and abdominal pain (6 species each); hypertension, rheumatic pain, fractures, and blood purification (5 species each); eye trouble and small pox (4 species each); snake bites, boils, and impotency (3 species each); leucorrhoea, cardiotonic, tuberculosis, burns, gout, and typhoid (2 specie each); anaemia, purgative, heart trouble, dyspepsia, increased lactation, curing body, intestinal problems, lactagogue, helminthics, and sprains (1 species each) (Fig. 3). It was also found that the juice from different plant parts are the most common form of preparation, followed by paste, direct use, and extracts. However, a major limitation of this study is that in many of these cases, the authors did not mention the folk recipes (Fig. 4).

Figure 3. Number of plants used in different medicinal purposes.

Figure 4. Ethnomedicinal preparation of plant parts in management of different disease.

In the ethnobotanical surveys across the Barak Valley, most of the information and data was collected through traditional healers, elderly village people, village headman, various ethnic groups, and tribal communities; however, some studies were organized across people from different cultures and societies.

DISCUSSION

It is estimated that a large proportion of the global population still relies on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs. People have always used plants as a source of medicine to cure various ailments. Our ancestors learned to utilize different plants for medical purposes through trial and error, and the knowledge has been passed from generation to generation without any written script. This knowledge of plants is still used in rural and ethnic communities [15, 16]. Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical surveys remain an important approach to finding unexplored plant resources that can be an important source for new drug discoveries [15]. Indigenous people have utilized many plants for medicinal purposes to maintain their health. There are countless possibilities for new drugs based on folk uses of plants [17]. It is estimated that only 5-15% of higher plant species (about 250,000 species) have been scientifically explored [16]. In India, folk medicine plays an important role in rural areas. It is estimated that traditional medicine use 8,000 plant species and more than 25,000 herbal formulas [18].

Barak Valley can be considered as a vast repository of medicinal plants although very few publications highlighted the significance of medicinal plants available in this area. Medicinal plants of the Barak Valley have been the subject of few of the publications and the significance of ethnomedicinal research has received little attention. After a critical search, we can able toretrieve only eight journal article (ethnomedicinal survey) which described the folk medicinal plants of the region which was included in this systematic review. Of course a number of other documents also highlighted the medicinal plants of Assam/North East India taking Barak velly as a part of the research area. Some of the literature like Saha and Dutta (2001) [19], Borthakur (1997, 2004) [20, 21], Bhattacharjee et al. (1980) [22], Dutta and Dutta (2001) [23] also highlighted the importance of medicinal plants of this area and our observations are also in the line of such documents. Expansion of modern civilization has a huge impact on the practice of traditional knowledge, most primitive civilizations have abandoned their cultural and traditional beliefs and traditions. There will be a gradual separation from culture and tradition, resulting in the loss of plant knowledge and practices in daily life. As a result, there is an urgent need to record such information for the benefit of mankind as a whole, before these people entirely lose their knowledge of the therapeutic benefits of plants.

This systematic review identified only eight ethnobotanical surveys, which is small considering the area, diversity of medicinal plants, and nature of the indigenous people. However, this review depicted the medicinal value of 216 plant species. Ethnobotany, scientific investigations focusing on the observations of ethnobotanical surveys, and validations of ethnomedicinal claims are important in identifying possible targets for new drug discoveries.

CONCLUSION

In the Barak Valley region, ethnomedicine is prevalent, and the people have a deep understanding of how plants can be used for different ailments. Furthermore, the Barak Valley contains a large number of plants used to treat ailments in the daily lives of the people in this region, whose potential has not yet been scientifically investigated. This paper provides significant data on the diversity, indigenous knowledge, and folk medicinal value of medicinal plants. This data is important for discovering of new pharmaceuticals based on plants used in traditional medicine in the Barak Valley.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

FUNDING

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Fig 1.

Figure 1.Flow chart of the references selected.
Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25: 149-185https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

Fig 2.

Figure 2.Utilization of plant parts for their medicinal value.
Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25: 149-185https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

Fig 3.

Figure 3.Number of plants used in different medicinal purposes.
Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25: 149-185https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

Fig 4.

Figure 4.Ethnomedicinal preparation of plant parts in management of different disease.
Journal of Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25: 149-185https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

Table 1 . Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Barak Valley, Assam.

Sl
no
Plant nameFamilyVernacular namePart usedFolk usesInformantsAvailabilityReference
1.*Averrhoa carambola L.OxalidaceaeKamrenga (BN)FruitRipe fruits are taken to cure jaundice.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
2.Acanthus
leucostachys Wallich
AcanthaceaeMussali (BN)LeafLeaf paste is applied externally in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
3.Achyranthes aspera L.AmaranthaceaeKathapatta (BN)
Obhat kata (AS)
Leaf, twigLeaf juice used internally in otorrhea. Young twig paste used as bandage in external wounds, injury.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
Stem, leafStem and leaf juice is useful in jaundice. Leaf juice is used in menstruation trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
4.Acorus calamus L.AraceaeBoch (AS)Not mentionedDried powder mixed with honey and taken in morning as stimulant.Old peopleDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
5.Adhatoda vasica NeesAcanthaceaeVasaka (BN)LeafLeaf juice is used to cure or relieve cough.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
LeafLeaf juice is used in cough.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Twig, leaf, bulbTwigs are used in diabetes. Fresh leaves used to develop resistance against poison. Paste of bulb used to cure gastric troubles. Leaves are used to cure cough, fever and itching.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafLeaf is used in jaundice, used with honey for cough, asthma.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
6.Aegle marmelos (L.) CorreaRutaceaeBel (BN)Fruit, leaf, rootRipen fruit shake used in stomach troubles. Leaf paste used in forehead against intermittent fever. Root, leaf extract used in diarrhoea and blood dysentery.Old people in the societyDistricts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
LeafLeaf juice mixed with black pepper and taken to get relief from piles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafLeaf juice with Piper longum taken orally against cold cough.-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
FruitFruits are taken to cure dysenteryVillage headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
7.Ageratum conyzoides L.AsteraceaeGendali bon (AS)Whole plantLeaf juice is applied externally in fresh cuts and wounds and in eye trouble. Plant juice is taken orally once daily in jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
8.Allium sativum L.LiliaceaeRasun (BN)BulbBulb is good for stomach problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Bulb, leafBulb paste is applied on injuries to remove pus.
Bulb is used to maintain blood pressure, and paralysed body part.
Leaf base are used to cure dysentery, gastric troubles and stomach worms.
Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamrang a village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
BulbUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
BulbBulb paste mixed with mustard oil is used to reduce body ache.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
9.Alocasia indica RoxbAraceaeHong-ngoo (M)RhizomeUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
10.Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G. DonAraceaeHong-ngo (M)Rhizome, petioleRhizome is used in bee bite. Petiole is used in poisonous bite.Local people, herbalist and traditional healers.Mashkall village, Cachar districtChanu et al., 2015 [14]
11.Aloe barbadensis W. MillerLiliaceaeGhritakumari (BN)LeafLeaf juice useful in leucorrhea, hair growth and tuberculosis-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
12.Alpinia malaacensis Burm. f.ZingiberaceaeMurta (BN)LeafYoung bud is used to cure ear problem.Village headman, medicine menVarious villages of Barak ValleyLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
13.Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd.ZingiberaceaeKulajan (BN)Whole plantPlant extract is used as abortifacient. Paste used for curing ringworm and rheumatic pain.Old people in the societyDistricts of Barak ValleyBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
14.Alstonia scholaris(L) R.Br.ApocynaceaeChaituang (MZ)BarkBark paste with honey is used to cure fever.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Leaf, latex, barkLeaf is used against headache. Latex is applied in allergy and abscesses. Bark used against stomach trouble.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
15.Alternanthera sessilis (L.) Br. ex. DC.AmaranthaceaeAkllencha (BN)Stem, leafStem and leaf paste is applied against snake bite.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
16.Amaranthus spinosus L.AmaranthaceaeKhentyimy ra (MZ)Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful in dysentery.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
17.Amaranthus virides L.AmaranthaceaeTanduliva (MZ)Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful against small pox.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
18.Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.BromeliaceaeAnaras (BN)
Keehom (M)
LeafLeaf juice mixed with salt and given to child to cure worm infection.Village headman, medicine menVarious villages of Barak ValleyLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Fruit, leafRipe fruit is used to cure cough. Young leaves are used to treat breathing problems.Herbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
LeafYoung leaf juice taken orally against worm-Hailakandi districtKhan et al., 2011 [12]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetesHmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
19.Andrographis paniculata (Burman f.) Wallich ex NeesAcanthaceaeKalmeg (BN)Leaf, twigPaste of leaves and twigs are used for hair growing.Village headman, medicine menVarious villagesLaskar and Dutta, 2009 [11]
Stem, leafStem and leaf are useful in dysentery. Leaf juice is taken orally in fever and stomach trouble. Stem juice is taken to eradicate worms.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
Leaf, whole plantLeaf extract is used in asthma and bronchitis. Whole plant is soaked in water overnight and taken for curing worms and stomach pain.Old people in the society.Different districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
TwigTwigs are used in fever, cough and liver troublesHerbal practitioners or kavirajsKamranga village, Cachar districtSingh et al., 2011 [3]
Whole plantUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
LeafFresh juice of the leaves along with honey is prescribed in fever.Village old men, medicine man, local men, women and cultivatorsManipuri community of Barak ValleyChoudhury et al., 2010 [4]
20.Angiopteris evecta (G. Froster) HoffmannAngiopterida­ceaeGokur (M)RhizomeRhizome is useful in piles.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellers.Tribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
21.Annona squamosa L.AnnonaceaeSitaphala m (MZ)LeafUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
22.Apama tomentosa (Bl.) EnglAristolochiaceaeAkpati (BN)StemStem juice is used as tonic.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
23.Areca catechu L.ArecaceaeKwa (BN)NutUsed in treatment of diabetes.Hmar, Manipuri and Barman communitiesHailakandi districtKhan et al., 2014 [13]
24.Argemone mexicana L.PapaveraceaeSiyalkata (BN)RootRoot juice is useful in fresh cuts and wounds.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages of Cachar districtDas et al., 2008 [2]
25.Artocarpus chama Buch.-HamMoraceaeChamkatha l (BN)BarkBark extract is used in jaundice. Dried fruit powder is used in diabetes.Old people in the societyDifferent istrictsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
26.Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.MoraceaeBohot (AS)Leaf, bark, fruitDried leaf and bark powder are used in malaria. Fruit is used in stomach troubles.Old people in the societyDifferent districtsBarbhuiya et al., 2009 [1]
27.*Averrhoa carambolaL.OxalidaceaeTheiher-awt (MZ)
Kadamba (BN)
FruitFruits are useful in jaundice.Village chiefs, medicine men, Ojha, local old women, school teachers, forest dwellersTribal villages
of Cachar district
Das et al., 2008 [2