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  • JoP
    Case Report2012-06-30

    Acupuncture and Spontaneous Regression of a Radiculopathic Cervical Herniated Disc

    Sung-Ha Kim1, Man-Young Park1, Sang-Mi Lee1, Ho-Hyun Jung1, Jae-Kyoun Kim1, Jong-Deok Lee2, Dong-Woung Kim3, Seung-Ryong Yeom4, Jin-Young Lim5, Min-Jung Park4, Se-Woon Park6, and Sung-Chul Kim1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2012; 15(2): 36-39 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2012.15.2.036

    Abstract : The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2014-06-30

    A Pilot Study on Single-dose Toxicity Testing of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Ilhong Son1,*, Sangmi Lee2,*, Doho Kim2, Hohyung Jeong2, Seung-Hun Cho3, Eun-Yong Lee4, Seung-Deok Lee5, Seong-Hun Ahn6, and Sungchul Kim2,**
    J Pharmacopuncture 2014; 17(2): 57-66 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.017

    Abstract : Objectives:This study was performed to analyze single dose toxicity and the lethal dose of Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture in rats.Methods:All experiments were conducted at the Korea Testing & Research Institute (KTR), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of Scolopendrid pharmacopuncture, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental group, and 1.0 mL doses of normal saline solution were administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethic Committee.Results:No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the groups. No significant changes in the weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry were noted between the control group and the experimental group. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues.Conclusion:The above findings suggest Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture is a relatively safe to use for treatment. Further studies on the subject should be conducted to yield more concrete evidence.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2014-06-30

    Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Hyunmin Kang1, Chungsan Lim1, Seungbae Lee2, Byoungwoo Kim3, Kirok Kwon4, and Kwangho Lee1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2014; 17(2): 18-26 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.012

    Abstract : Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests.Results:(1) Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2) The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3) No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs), and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4) No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5) Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed.Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2014-09-30

    Intravenous Single-dose Toxicity of Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Kwangho Lee1, Seungho Sun2, Junsang Yu3, Chungsan Lim1, and Kirok Kwon4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2014; 17(3): 50-56 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.026

    Abstract : Objectives:Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) is an extract distilled from either mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This is the first intravenous injection of pharmacopuncture in Korea. The word intravenous does not discriminate between arteries, veins, and capillaries in Oriental Medicine, but only the vein is used for MGP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the intravenous injection toxicity of MGP through a single-dose test in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods:Male and female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intravenously with MGP (high dosage of 20 mL/kg or low dosage of 10 mL/kg). Normal saline was injected into the rats in the control group by using the same method. After the rats has treated, we conducted clinical observations, body-weight measurements and histological observations.Results:In this study, no mortalities were observed in any of the experimental groups. Also, no significant changes by the intravenous injection of MGP were observed in the body weights, or the histological observations in any of the experimental groups compared to the control group. The lethal dose for intravenous injection of MGP was found to be over 20 mL/kg in SD rats.Conclusion:Considering that the dosage of MGP generally used each time in clinical practice is about 0.3 mL/kg, we concluded with confidence that MGP is safe pharmacopuncture.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2015-03-31

    Single-dose Intramuscular Injection Toxicology of Danggui Pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    SeungHo Sun1, JongJin Jeong1, Sunju Park2, KwangHo Lee3, JunSang Yu4, Hyung-Sik Seo5, and KiRok Kwon6,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2015; 18(1): 56-62 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.006

    Abstract : Objectives:The purpose of the study is to assess both the approximate lethal dose and the single dose intramuscular injection toxicity of Danggui (Angelica gigantis radix) pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods:The experiments were conducted at the good laboratory practice (GLP) laboratory, Biotoxtech Co., which is a laboratory approved by the ministry of food and drug safety (MFDS). The study was performed according to the GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the MFDS (2009) after approval of the institutional animal care and use committee of Biotoxtech. Single doses of DGP were injected intramuscularly into the rats in three test groups of 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per groups) in the amounts of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/animal for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and normal saline solution in the amount of 1.0 mL/animal was injected intramuscularly into the rats (5 male and 5 female rats) in the control group. Observations of the general symptoms and weight measurements were performed during the 14 day observation period after the injection. Hematologic and serum biochemical examination, necropsy, and a local tolerance test at the injection site were done after the observation period.Results:No death was observed in three test groups (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal group). In addition, the injection of DGP had no effect on general symptoms, weights, hematologic and serum biochemical examination, and necropsy. The results from the local tolerance tests at injection site showed no treatment related effects in the SD rats.Conclusion:The results of single dose intramuscular injection of DGP suggest that the approximate lethal dose is above 1.0 mL/animal for both male and female SD rats and that intramuscular injection of DGP may be safe.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2014-06-30

    Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Samgihwalryeok-Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Sung-Chul Kim1, and Seong-Hun Ahn2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2014; 17(2): 46-56 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.016

    Abstract : Objectives:This study was performed to examine the single-dose toxicity of Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture.Methods:Forty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each; each group was then sub-divided into two smaller groups, one of five males and the other of five females. Group 1 (G1, control) received 1.0 mL of normal saline solution, while group 2 (G2, low-dose group), group 3 (G3, mid-does group, and group 4 (G4, high-dose group) received 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture, respectively.Results:No mortalities or clinical signs were observed in the four groups. Also, no significant changes in body weights were observed among the group, and no significant differences in hematology/biochemistry, necropsy, or histopathology results were noted.Conclusion:The above findings suggest that treatment with Samgihwalryeok pharmacopuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed.

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  • Abstract : Objective:This case report is to report the effect of Korean traditional treatment for idiopathic ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy with ipsilateral headache.Methods:The medical history and imaging and laboratory test of a 39-year-old man with cranial palsy were tested to identify the cause of disease. A 0.2-mL dosage of Hwangyeonhaedoktang pharmacopuncture was administered at CV23 and CV17, respectively. Acupuncture was applied at P06, Li05, TE05, and G37 on the right side of the body. Zhuapiandutongbang (左 偏頭痛方) was administered at 30 minutes to 1 hour after mealtime three times a day. The symptoms were investigated using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).Results:The results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and laboratory tests were normal. The medical history showed no trauma, other illnesses, family history of diseases, medications, smoking, drinking and so on. All symptoms disappeared at the 10th day of treatment.Conclusion:Korean traditional treatment such as acupuncture, pharmcopuncture, and herbal medicine for the treatment of ninth, tenth, and twelfth cranial nerve palsy of unknown origin is suggested to be effective even though this conclusion is based on a single.

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  • Original Article2018-09-30

    Efficacy and Safety of Miniscalpel Acupuncture on Knee Osteoarthritis

    Seungah Jun1, Jung Hee Lee1, Han Mi Gong1, Seong Hun Choi2, Min Hwang Bo3, Mi Suk Kang4, Geon-Mok Lee5, Hyun-Jong Lee1, and Jae Soo Kim1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2018; 21(3): 151-158 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2018.21.018

    Abstract : Objectives We investigated the efficacy and safety of miniscalpel acupuncture (MA) for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in an assessor-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial; this would provide information for a large-scale randomized controlled trial. Methods Participants (n = 24) were recruited and randomly allocated to the MA group (experimental) or acupuncture group (control). The MA group received treatment once a week for 3 weeks (total of 3 treatments), while the acupuncture group received treatment two times per week for 3 weeks (total of 6 treatments). The primary outcome was pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes (intensity of current pain, stiffness, and physical function) were assessed using the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Assessments were performed at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 during treatment and at week 5 (2 weeks after the end of treatment). Results Of the 24 participants, 23 completed the study. Both groups showed significant improvements in VAS, SF-MPQ, and WOMAC. However, there were no significant differences between the MA and acupuncture groups. No serious adverse event occurred and blood test results were within normal limits. Conclusion Our results suggest that although both MA and acupuncture provide similar effects with regard to pain control in patients with KOA, MA may be more effective in providing pain relief because the same relief was obtained with fewer treatments. A large-scale clinical study is warranted to further clarify these findings.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2014-06-30

    Intravenous Injection of Saeng Maek San - A Safe Method of Treatment in Rats

    Min-ji Choi1, Sung-chul Kim2, and Seung-Hun Cho1,3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2014; 17(2): 67-72 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2014.17.018

    Abstract : Objectives:This study evaluated the single-dose toxicity of Saeng Maek San (SMS) in rats.Methods:All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech (Chungwon, Korea), an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). A single-dose intravenous toxicity study was carried out on 40 6-week-old Sprague-Daley rats. The animals were randomly divided into the following four groups of ten animals each: Group 1 (G1) was the control group, with each animal receiving an intravenous injection of 1.0 mL of saline, and Groups 2, 3 and 4 (G2, G3 and G4) were the experimental groups, with the animals in the groups receiving an injection of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL of SMS, respectively. Mortality, clinical signs, body-weight changes and gross pathological findings were observed for 14 days following a single administration of SMS or saline. Organ weights, clinical chemistry and hematology were analyzed at 14 days. This study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee.Results:No deaths occurred in any of the four groups,indicating that the lethal dose of SMS in rats is greater than 1.0 mL/animal. Some changes in weights of male rats between the control group and the experimental groups were observed, but no significant changes in the weights of female rats were noted. To identify abnormalities in organs and tissues, we stained representative sections of each specified organ with hematoxylin and eosin for examination with a light microscope. No significant abnormalities were observed in any of the organs or tissues.Conclusion:The results suggest that intravenous injection of SMS is a safe method of treatment.

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  • JoP
    Original Article2015-03-31

    Acupuncture in Patients with a Vertebral Compression Fracture: A Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled, Pilot Clinical Trial

    Hyun-jong Lee1,#, Jung-chul Seo2,#, Sung-hoon Park2, Min-ah Kwak3, Im hee Shin4, Bo-mi Min5, Min-su Cho5, Woon-seok Roh5, and Jin-yong Jung5,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2015; 18(1): 79-85 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.009

    Abstract : Objectives:A vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is characterized by back pain and fracture of a vertebral body on spinal radiography. VCFs of the thoraco lumbar spine are common in the elderly. In general, appropriate analgesics should be prescribed to reduce pain and, thus, promote early mobilization. The ideal treatment approach for VCFs has not been determined. In Korea, acupuncture and herbal medication have been used to treat VCFs for many years. There is empirical evidence that acupuncture might benefit patients with a VCF. However, no randomized, controlled, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and the safety of acupuncture for treating a VCF have been published. Therefore, we designed a randomized, controlled, pilot, clinical trial to obtain information for the design of a further full scale trial.Methods:A five week protocol for a randomized, controlled, pilot, clinical trial is presented. Fourteen patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: a control group receiving interlaminar epidural steroid injections once a week for three weeks, and an experimental group receiving interlaminar epidural steroid injections plus acupuncture treatment (three acupuncture sessions per week for three weeks, nine sessions in total). The primary outcomes will be the pain intensity (visual analogue scale and PainVisionTM system). The secondary outcome measurements will be the answers on the short form McGill pain questionnaire and the oswestry disability index. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three, and five weeks. The last assessment (week five) will take place two weeks after treatment cessation. This study will provide both an indication of feasibility and a clinical foundation for a future large scale trial. The outcomes will provide additional resources for incorporating acupuncture into existing treatments, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, narcotics and vertebral augmentation. This article describes the protocol.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Vol.27 No.1
March, 2024

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

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  • Systematic Review2022-06-30

    Effect of Castor Oil on Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Maryam Moradi1,2, Azin Niazi2*, Ehsan Mazloumi3, Violeta Lopez4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(2): 71-78 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.2.71

    Abstract : Objectives: Post-term pregnancy is a condition associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Administration of castor oil causes cervical stimulation by increasing the production of prostaglandins. We examined the effects of castor oil on cervical ripening and labor induction through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Methods: The search process was performed to obtain relevant articles from databases including Pubmed, Cochrane library, Scopus, Science direct, SID, Iran Medex, and Google Scholar using the English keywords of cervical ripening, post-term, castor oil, labor induction, Bishop score, and pregnancy considering all possible combinations without time constraints and their Persian equivalents from national databases.Results: A total of eight related articles from the 19 primary studies were extracted and systematically reviewed. According to a cumulative chart, the difference in the post-intervention Bishop score was statistically significant (standard mean difference [SMD]: 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-2.11, p = 0.001), indicating an effect of castor oil on increasing the Bishop score. In addition, the difference in labor induction was statistically significant after the intervention (odds ratio: 11.67, 95% CI: 3.34-40.81, p = 0.001), indicating an effect of castor oil on increasing the odds ratio of labor induction (experience of vaginal delivery).Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that oral administration of castor oil is effective for cervical ripening and labor induction. Midwives should closely monitor pregnant women with prolonged labor and collaborate with obstetricians to employ castor oil as a safe intervention to induce cervical ripening and labor to prevent undue caesarean surgery.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Morphological and Chemical Analysis of Various Disposable Acupuncture Needles Used in South Korea

    Dong Yong Park1†, JiYoon Ahn2†, Hyeon Jeong Park1, Doo Suk Lee2, Dae-Hyun Jo2, Jonghoon Kim2, Choulmin Kim2, Heebum Chung2, Ji Hye Hwang3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 382-389 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.382

    Abstract : Objectives: The Korean Industrial Standard (KS) for sterile acupuncture needles was established in 2009 based on research on the quality control of acupuncture needles. We aimed to determine the quality of acupuncture needles available in South Korea in 2021 by examining their surface condition and chemical composition using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Methods: In South Korea, there are 23 brands of acupuncture needles, and we examined 10-15 needles from each brand, resulting in a total of 285 needles. The microstructures of the needles were assessed by SEM. Using SEM images, we evaluated the acupuncture needle tips for the following defects/aspects: scratches, lumps, detached coating, bent tip, and tip sharpness. EDS was used to determine the chemical composition of the selected acupuncture needles.Results: Overall, 88.4% of 285 needles were found to have at least one type of abnormality. The most frequently observed abnormalities were scratches and dents on the surface (68.1%), followed by detached coating (63.2%), and lumps (61.8%); blunt tips were observed in about 24% of them. Of 252 needles with at least one defect, 86.9% had two or more types of defects. The ratio of the number of needles with any defect to that of needles without any defect varied among brands, ranging from 50% to 100%. Regarding foreign materials, higher proportions of Si and O were observed on the needles, indicating incomplete or detached silicone coating.Conclusion: The quality of acupuncture needles varied among brands, suggesting that further improvements can be made through various inspection methods.

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  • Systematic Review2022-06-30

    Effect of Castor Oil on Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Maryam Moradi1,2, Azin Niazi2*, Ehsan Mazloumi3, Violeta Lopez4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(2): 71-78 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.2.71

    Abstract : Objectives: Post-term pregnancy is a condition associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. Administration of castor oil causes cervical stimulation by increasing the production of prostaglandins. We examined the effects of castor oil on cervical ripening and labor induction through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Methods: The search process was performed to obtain relevant articles from databases including Pubmed, Cochrane library, Scopus, Science direct, SID, Iran Medex, and Google Scholar using the English keywords of cervical ripening, post-term, castor oil, labor induction, Bishop score, and pregnancy considering all possible combinations without time constraints and their Persian equivalents from national databases.Results: A total of eight related articles from the 19 primary studies were extracted and systematically reviewed. According to a cumulative chart, the difference in the post-intervention Bishop score was statistically significant (standard mean difference [SMD]: 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-2.11, p = 0.001), indicating an effect of castor oil on increasing the Bishop score. In addition, the difference in labor induction was statistically significant after the intervention (odds ratio: 11.67, 95% CI: 3.34-40.81, p = 0.001), indicating an effect of castor oil on increasing the odds ratio of labor induction (experience of vaginal delivery).Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that oral administration of castor oil is effective for cervical ripening and labor induction. Midwives should closely monitor pregnant women with prolonged labor and collaborate with obstetricians to employ castor oil as a safe intervention to induce cervical ripening and labor to prevent undue caesarean surgery.

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  • Review Article2022-06-30

    Performance of DNA Methylation on the Molecular Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Cancer; targeted therapy approach

    Sogand Vahidi1, Ebrahim Mirzajani2,3, Seyedeh Elham Norollahi4, Mohsen Aziminezhad5,6, Ali Akbar Samadani7*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(2): 88-100 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.2.88

    Abstract : Gastric cancer (GC) is a significant cause of cancer mortality which has led to focused exploration of the pathology of GC. The advent of genome-wide analysis methods has made it possible to uncover genetic and epigenetic fluctuation such as abnormal DNA methylation in gene promoter regions that is expected to play a key role in GC. The study of gastric malignancies requires an etiological perspective, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was identified to play a role in GC. H. pylori infection causes chronic inflammation of the gastric epithelium causing abnormal polyclonal methylation, which might raise the risk of GC. In the last two decades, various pathogenic factors by which H. pylori infection causes GC have been discovered. Abnormal DNA methylation is triggered in several genes, rendering them inactive. In GC, methylation patterns are linked to certain subtypes including microsatellite instability. Multiple cancer-related processes are more usually changed by abnormal DNA methylation than through mutations, according to current general and combined investigations. Furthermore, the amount of acquired abnormal DNA methylation is heavily linked to the chances of developing GC. Therefore, we investigated abnormal DNA methylation in GC and the link between methylation and H. pylori infection.

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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Therapeutic Potential of Active Components from Acorus gramineus and Acorus tatarinowii in Neurological Disorders and Their Application in Korean Medicine

    Cheol Ju Kim1, Tae Young Kwak1, Min Hyeok Bae1, Hwa Kyoung Shin1,2*, Byung Tae Choi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 326-343 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.326

    Abstract : Neurological disorders represent a substantial healthcare burden worldwide due to population aging. Acorus gramineus Solander (AG) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (AT), whose major component is asarone, have been shown to be effective in neurological disorders. This review summarized current information from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the effects of extracts and active components of AG and AT (e.g., α-asarone and β-asarone) on neurological disorders and biomedical targets, as well as the mechanisms involved. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and RISS, were searched using the following keywords: asarone, AG, AT, and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression and anxiety, epilepsy, and stroke. Meta-analyses and reviews were excluded. A total of 873 studies were collected. A total of 89 studies were selected after eliminating studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Research on neurological disorders widely reported that extracts or active components of AG and AT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating neurological disorders. These components also possessed a wide array of neuroprotective effects, including reduction of pathogenic protein aggregates, antiapoptotic activity, modulation of autophagy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, regulation of neurotransmitters, activation of neurogenesis, and stimulation of neurotrophic factors. Most of the included studies were preclinical studies that used in vitro and in vivo models, and only a few clinical studies have been performed. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on AG and AT therapeutic effects as a basis for further clinical studies, and clinical trials are required before these findings can be applied to human neurological disorders.

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