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  • Original Article2024-03-31

    Pharmacoacupuncture for the Treatment of Frozen Shoulder: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ji-Ho Lee1, Hyeon-Sun Park2, Sang-Hyeon Park2, Dong-Ho Keum2, Seo-Hyun Park2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2024; 27(1): 14-20 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2024.27.1.14

    Abstract : Objectives: Frozen shoulder (FS) is one of the most challenging shoulder disorders for patients and clinicians. Its symptoms mainly include any combination of stiffness, nocturnal pain, and limitation of active and passive glenohumeral joint movement. Conventional treatment options for FS are physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, injection therapy, and arthroscopic capsular release, but adverse and limited effects continue to present problems. As a result, pharmacoacupuncture (PA) is getting attention as an alternative therapy for patients with FS. PA is a new form of acupuncture treatment in traditional Korean medicine (TKM) that is mainly used for musculoskeletal diseases. It has similarity and specificity compared to corticosteroid injection and hydrodilatation, making it a potential alternative injection therapy for FS. However, no systematic reviews investigating the utilization of PA for FS have been published. Therefore, this review aims to standardize the clinical use of PA for FS and validate its therapeutic effect.Methods: The protocol was registered in Prospero (CRD42023445708) on 18 July 2023. Until Aug. 31, 2023, seven electronic databases will be searched for randomized controlled trials of PA for FS. Authors will be contacted, and manual searches will also be performed. Two reviewers will independently screen and collect data from retrieved articles according to predefined criteria. The primary outcome will be pain intensity, and secondary outcomes will be effective rate, Constant-Murley Score, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, range of motion, quality of life, and adverse events. Bias and quality of the included trials will be assessed using the Cochrane handbook’s risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Meta analyses will be conducted using Review Manager V.5.3 software. GRADE will be used to evaluate the level of evidence for each outcome.Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted following PRISMA statement. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.Conclusion: This review will provide scientific evidence to support health insurance policy as well as the standardization of PA in clinical practice.

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    Original Article2023-03-31

    Effectiveness of the Shugan Jieyu Capsule against Psychiatric Symptoms in Epilepsy: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis

    Sejin Kim1, Yunna Kim1,2,3*, Seung-Hun Cho1,2,3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 38-43 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.38

    Abstract : Objectives: Psychiatric symptoms in epilepsy are very common, and the most common symptoms are depression, insomnia, and anxiety. These symptoms not only lower the quality of life of epilepsy patients, but also elevate the risk of epileptic seizures. There are no specific criteria for the available antiepileptic drugs to ameliorate these symptoms in patients with epilepsy, and there is a lack of evidence to support the efficacy and safety of existing drugs. The Shugan Jieyu capsule (SJC) is a traditional herbal medicine composed of Acanthopanax senticosus and Hypericum perforatum and is reported to be effective in relieving psychiatric symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of SJC as a treatment for psychiatric symptoms in epilepsy patients.Methods: Electronic databases will be investigated for publications in English, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese. The participants of the study are epilepsy patients with psychiatric symptoms diagnosed using any validated criteria. All types of controls will be compared—placebo, conventional treatments, and no treatment—to groups treated with SJC or modified SJC. We will measure the degree of improvement in psychiatric symptoms and check epileptic symptoms, such as the frequency of seizures. The study selection and data extraction will be performed by two independent reviewers, who will also assess methodological quality using the risk-of-bias tool by Cochrane. We will use Review Manager software (RevMan) to carry out all statistical analyses.Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis will be performed in accordance with the PRISMA-P statement.Conclusion: This systematic review is the first study to assess the efficacy and safety of SJC for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms in epilepsy. We expect that this study will provide clinically applicable evidence for patients with epilepsy when selecting drug treatments.

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  • Original Article2022-03-31

    A Study on the Skin Irritation Toxicity Test of Processed Sulfur in New Zealand White Rabbit

    Hoseok Jung1, Wookcheol Seo1, Taeseong Jeong1, Hyung Won Kang2, Sungchul Kim1,3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(1): 46-51 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.1.46

    Abstract : Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the skin irritation toxicity of processed sulfur. Methods: All experiments were conducted at Medvill (Korea), an institution authorized to perform non-clinical studies, under the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. In order to investigate skin irritation toxicity of processed sulfur, we divided the back of six rabbits into two control sites and two test sites. One of each of the two control and test sites was then designated abraded sites and intact sites. In test sites, 0.5 g of processed sulfur was applied to the back of the rabbit for 24 hours, and in control sites, 0.5 g of sterile distilled water was applied in the same way. We observed and evaluated mortality, weight, general symptoms, and skin irritation toxicity. This study was conducted with the approval of the Animal Ethics Committee (Approval number: IAC2020-1549). Results: In all experiments, no dead animals were observed. In all cases, skin coloration was observed at 24 hours after processed sulfur administration. This coloration lasted up to 48 hours and is believed to be the effect of the administration of test substances. Weight measurement indicated that weight was lost 72 hours after administration in three cases, but this is considered an accidental weight change. Normal weight gain was observed in the remaining subjects. In all animals, no skin irritation toxicity was observed, and the primary irritation index (P.I.I) was calculated as 0.0 according to Draize’s evaluation method. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that it is relatively safe to apply a processed sulfur to the skin. Further research on this topic is needed to provide more specific evidence.

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    Original Article2023-03-31

    Home Healthcare Service Awareness Survey for Korean Medicine Doctors: a survey study

    Hye In Jeong1†, Taegwang Nam2†, Minhui Hong2, Kyeong Han Kim3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 60-66 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.60

    Abstract : Objectives: Discussions regarding “medical blind spots” in Korea’s “aging society” are continuously rising. In addition, the demand for medical attention and care for the elderly and vulnerable populations continues to increase. Given this, the government is promoting the “home healthcare service” project. This study aims to lay the foundation for promoting this project by investigating the perception of clinical Korean Medicine (KM) doctors in the “community health care” project.Methods: With the cooperation of the Association of Korean Medicine, we sent a questionnaire to all KM doctors through e-mail. The survey included personal information, awareness, appropriate disease and intervention, proper visit location, and pros and cons.Results: A total of 602 responses were collected and analyzed. Approximately 20% of the doctors answered that they were well aware of the service, while 55% responded that they did not know about it. For a visit, a KM doctor selected the appropriate diseases in the order of stroke, dementia and Parkinson’s disease, osteoarthritis, and chronic diseases. Among treatments, acupuncture, moxibustion, and herbal medicine exhibited similar results. The most common opinion was that KM doctors should schedule their visits once a week for 6-12 months, which was the most prolonged period among the given options. More than 80% (84.1%) of the doctors replied that care projects were highly essential, and about 63.8% expressed their willingness to participate in these projects.Conclusion: To provide appropriate home health care, we must raise awareness among Korean medicine doctors. In addition, the healthcare budget must be increased to provide the required support.

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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Case Study of a Patient with Trigger Finger after Conducting Pharmacopuncture according to the Progress

    Jeong Ho Huh1†, Dong Heon Lee1†, Jun Young Lee1†, Ju Hwa Jeong1, Seok Hee Kim2, Kyung Jin Lee2, Tae Han Yook3, Kyeong Han Kim4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 99-104 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.99

    Abstract : Our study purpose was to report the clinical application of five different pharmacopunctures (Sweet BV, Scolopendrae Corpus, Chukyu, Cervi Parvum Cornu, and Hominis Placenta) for trigger finger. A patient was admitted to Ba-reun-mom S Korean Medicine Clinic and diagnosed with trigger finger. Because the effects of each pharmacopuncture have been confirmed in various acute to chronic cases, we treated a patient diagnosed with trigger finger using pharmacopunctures Sweet BV and Scolopendrae Corpus at the acute phase, Chukyu pharmacopuncture at the acute to chronic phase, and pharmacopunctures Cervi Parvum Cornu and Hominis Placenta at the chronic phase. This case was measured and assessed by Quinnell’s classification of triggering and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. After treatment, the patient’s fifth finger pain and function were improved. The VAS score decreased from 5 to 0. The Quinnell’s classification of triggering score decreased from 2 to 0. This case indicated that a patient with trigger finger could be treated by five pharmacopuncture treatments according to the treatment regimen and disease progress.

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  • Original Article2024-06-30

    Pandanus amaryllifoius Roxb. Leaves Ethanol Extract Ameliorates Lipid and Proinflammatory Cytokines Profiles in a Rat Model of Dyslipidemia

    Martohap Parotua Lumbanraja , Kusnandar Anggadiredja*, Neng Fisheri Kurniati , Hubbi Nashrullah Muhammad
    J Pharmacopuncture 2024; 27(2): 101-109 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2024.27.2.101

    Abstract : Objectives: Dyslipidemia has currently become a major health challenge that still opens for safer and more effective modes of treatment. The plant Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (pandan) has been indicated to contain active ingredients that interfere with the pathological pathway of dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to test the effects of pandan leaves ethanol extract on lipid and proinflammatory profiles in a rat dyslipidemic model. Methods: Dyslipidemia was induced by administration of high-fat feed for 8 weeks. Treatments (vehicle, the reference drug simvastatin at 1.8 mg/kg, and extract at 200, 300 or 600 mg/kg) were given for 4 weeks following the completion of induction. Results: Significant post-treatment decreases in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride levels in groups receiving all doses of extract and simvastatin were observed. Similar results were also found in regards to proinflammatory cytokines levels. Pandan extracts significantly lowered the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and NFκB p65. Characterization of metabolite contents of the extract confirmed the presence of the previously suggested active alkaloids pandamarilactonine-A and B. Conclusion: Taken together, results of the present study implied the ameliorating effects of pandan leaves ethanol extract in dyslipidemic condition which is potential for opening an avenue in combating this essential component of metabolic disorder.

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  • Original Article2024-06-30

    Use of Herbal Decoction and Pharmacopuncture in Individuals with Chronic Disease: findings from a nationally representative panel

    Chan-Young Kwon1†*, Sunghun Yun2†, Bo-Hyoung Jang3, Il-Su Park4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2024; 27(2): 110-122 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2024.27.2.110

    Abstract : Objectives: This study analyzed the Korea Health Panel Annual Data 2019 to investigate factors related to the use of non-insured Korean medicine (KM) treatment in individuals with chronic diseases. The non-insured KM treatments of interest were herbal decoction (HD) and pharmacopuncture (PA). Methods: Among adults aged 19 or older, 6,159 individuals with chronic diseases who received outpatient KM treatment at least once in 2019 were included. They were divided into three groups according to the KM treatment used: (1) basic insured KM non-pharmacological treatment (BT) group (n = 629); (2) HD group (n = 256); (3) PA group (n = 184). Logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with favoring HD or PA use over BT. Potentially relevant candidate factors were classified using the Andersen Behavior Model. Results: Compared to BT, the 1st to 3rd quartiles of income compared to the 4th quartile (odds ratio: 1.50 to 2.06 for HD; 2.03 to 2.83 for PA), health insurance subscribers compared to medical aid (odds ratio: 2.51; 13.43), and presence of musculoskeletal diseases (odds ratio: 1.66; 1.91) were significantly positively associated with HD and PA use. Moreover, the presence of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio: 1.46) and neuropsychiatric disease (odds ratio: 1.97) were also significantly positively associated with HD use. Conclusion: The presence of some chronic diseases, especially musculoskeletal diseases, was significantly positively associated with HD and PA use, while low economic status was significantly negatively associated with HD and PA use, indicating the potential existence of unmet medical needs in this population. Since chronic diseases impose a considerable health burden, the results of this study can be used for reference for future health insurance coverage policies in South Korea.

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  • Original Article2023-06-30

    In Silico Studies of Indole Derivatives as Antibacterial Agents

    Mridul Shah1†, Adarsh Kumar1†, Ankit Kumar Singh1, Harshwardhan Singh1, Balasubramanian Narasimhan2, Pradeep Kumar1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 147-157 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.147

    Abstract : Objectives: Molecular docking and QSAR studies of indole derivatives as antibacterial agents.Methods: In this study, we used a multiple linear regressions (MLR) approach to construct a 2D quantitative structure activity relationship of 14 reported indole derivatives. It was performed on the reported antibacterial activity data of 14 compounds based on theoretical chemical descriptors to construct statistical models that link structural properties of indole derivatives to antibacterial activity. We have also performed molecular docking studies of same compounds by using Maestro module of Schrodinger. A set the molecular descriptors like hydrophobic, geometric, electronic and topological characters were calculated to represent the structural features of compounds. The conventional antibiotics sultamicillin and ampicillin were not used in the model development since their structures are different from those of the created compounds. Biological activity data was first translated into pMIC values (i.e. –log MIC) and used as a dependent variable in QSAR investigation.Results: Compounds with high electronic energy and dipole moment were effective antibacterial agents against S. aureus , indole derivatives with lower κ2 values were excellent antibacterial agents against MRSA standard strain, and compounds with lower R value and a high 2χv value were effective antibacterial agents against MRSA isolate.Conclusion: Compounds 12 and 2 showed better binding score against penicillin binding protein 2 and penicillin binding protein 2a respectively.

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  • Original Article2023-06-30

    Modulation of Immunological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Changes of Airway Remodeling by Withania somnifera in an Experimental Model of Allergic Asthma in Rats

    Nafaa Hasan Ali1, Sana Rehman1, Maaz Naqvi1, Kavita Gulati2, Arunabha Ray1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 158-166 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.158

    Abstract : Objectives: Airway remodeling in asthma involves chronic inflammation associated with structural changes, which result in severe airflow limitation and very few therapeutic options. Thus, the present study was designed to experimentally evaluate the ameliorative effects of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract against Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway remodeling in a rat model of asthma.Methods: Wistar rats were immunized (i.p) and challenged (aerosol) with ovalbumin (OVA), and the effects of WS extract were investigated on the development and progress of airway remodeling by assessing immunological, biochemical, and histological changes in these rats.Results: OVA-immunization and challenge in rats resulted in significant increases in the levels of IL-13, 8-OhdG, TGF-β, hydroxyproline, and periostin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum/lung homogenate compared to normal control (saline only) rats, and these changes were attenuated after WS extract (200 and 400 mg/kg), as well as dexamethasone (DEX, 1 mg/kg) pretreatments. Further, WS extract attenuated histopathological changes and maintained lung integrity. In herb-drug interactions, sub-threshold doses of WS extract and DEX showed synergistic effects on all parameters studied as compared to either form of monotherapy.Conclusion: These results indicated that WS exerted significant protective effects against airway remodeling in the experimental model by modulating inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines, and could have the potential for developing a therapeutic alternative/adjunct for the treatment of airway remodeling of bronchial asthma.

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  • Abstract : The COVID-19, the most infectious pandemic disease arising due to SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has caused huge issues globally. In this review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system of the human body and the protective mechanisms of the host immune system opposing viral infections. Here, we summarize the effect of the pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease on the immune system such as sleep and Behavioral Immune System (BIS) together with consideration of researcher’s observation points of view. We draw particular attention to recent up-to-date reports concerning COVID-19 drugs as well as information about the landscape document for COVID-19 vaccines released by WHO (World Health Organization), and some adverse events of COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, can take part in the preventive appraise in opposition within this pandemic severe COVID-19 infections disease may affect some outcome in physical exercise, physical movement, healthy diets, and good nutrition are significant for supporting the immune systems and summarize AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) Indian medicinal systems guidelines for immunity boosting procedures during COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • Review Article2021-12-31

    Study of Latest Trend on Acupuncture for Obesity Treatment

    Hea-Sun Chun1, Dong-Hwan Kim2, Ho-Seub Song1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(4): 173-181 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.4.173

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this review was to appraise Korean studies published between 2010 and 2021 which examined the role of acupuncture in the treatment of obesity.Methods: We performed a search of the NDSL, KISS, RISS, OASIS, PubMed, EMBASE electronic databases for relevant animal researches, case reports, and clinical trials, using the following search terms: ‘obesity’, ‘acupuncture’, ‘electroacupuncture’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’. We excluded previous reviews and meta-analyses, studies not related to obesity or acupuncture treatment, as well as studies conducted in countries other than Korea. We also excluded studies where relevant information on acupuncture treatment in obesity could not be obtained.Results: Most studies were conducted in animals, followed by case reports and clinical trials. In animal researches and case reports, pharmacopuncture was the most used intervention. In case studies, electroacupuncture, thread-embedding therapy, manual acupuncture, acupotomy, and auricular acupuncture were also used. In animal researches, pharmacopuncture treatment was associated with improvement in obesity indices. In the case of local obesity, specific acupuncture techniques such as thread-embedding therapy and pharmacopuncture were associated with significant improvements in local obesity, even when diet and exercise were not controlled for.Conclusion: Acupuncture treatment showed significant benefit in the treatment of obesity, with a local effect evident for certain approaches, such thread-embedding therapy and acupotomy.

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  • Original Article2023-06-30

    Satisfaction and Perceived Effectiveness on Herbal Decoctions for Postpartum Care: a cross-sectional survey of mother’s experience

    Min Kyung Hyun1, Jang Kyung Park2, Sung Yoon Oh3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 175-183 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.175

    Abstract : Objectives: In East Asia, postpartum care has traditionally been considered important for maternal health; however, studies on this are still insufficient. Therefore, we examined the satisfaction and perceived effectiveness of herbal decoctions used in postpartum care in a city in the Republic of Korea (ROK).Methods: We analyzed anonymized secondary data obtained from a retrospective crosssectional survey of women who had taken herbal decoctions provided by the support service for women giving birth in a local city in ROK. The questionnaire items consisted of basic information regarding childbirth, the need for the herbal decoction support service, satisfaction, and the effectiveness of the service received.Results: A total of 68 women were included in the study, and those aged 30-39 accounted for 73.13%. Of the 68 women, 79.37% visited within 3 weeks of childbirth. Women’s satisfaction regarding herbal decoction support for postpartum care was 76.47%, and most women (98.53%) responded that they needed it more than twice. More than 50% of women showed improvement in puerperal wind disorders, weight gain, and delayed eliminated lochia.Conclusion: A large proportion of women who took herbal decoctions reported satisfaction and perceived effectiveness when used to treat puerperal wind disorders. Nevertheless, future well-designed clinical studies are needed to provide information on whether herbal decoctions effectively prevent and treat puerperal wind disorders.

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  • Original Article2023-06-30

    National Health Insurance Data Analysis for the Second-Wave Development of Korean Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines in South Korea

    Chan-Young Kwon1†*, Seungwon Shin2†, O-Jin Kwon3, Wonkyung Moon4,5, Namkwen Kim6,7, Minjung Park4,8*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 198-209 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.198

    Abstract : Objectives: After the evidence-based Korean medicine clinical practice guidelines (KMCPGs) for 30 targeted diseases were developed in 2021, 34 diseases have been proposed for the second-wave development of the KM-CPGs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the development priorities of the candidate diseases into the second-wave development of KM-CPGs in south Korea.Methods: In this study, we analyzed the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patient Sample data from 2017 to 2018 to determine the demand and economic importance of the candidates for the second-wave development of KM-CPGs in real-world clinical settings in Korea.Results: The annual number of visits and patients, annual healthcare expenditure per patient, and healthcare expenditure per institution were analyzed. Musculoskeletal disorders, including sciatica and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, were the most important topics regarding the number of visits and patients and annual healthcare expenditure per institution. Specifically, sciatica (52.05% of the total number of visits, 48.34% of the total number of patients, and 42.12% of the total treatment expenditure per institution) showed overwhelmingly high proportions. However, cerebral palsy (36.03% of the total number of inpatient visits and 24.55% of the total number of inpatient patients) was a more important topic in inpatient clinical settings than musculoskeletal conditions or cancer, and healthcare expenditure per patient in this topic had the highest ranking. Furthermore, fractures were found to be highly important in inpatient clinical settings. No patients had influenza A virus infection or posttraumatic stress disorders who visited the KM medical institution of interest.Conclusion: This study highlights the gap between the real-world clinical setting and the research field in some topics. The results of this study can provide guidance for the second- wave development of KM-CPGs in the future.

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  • Abstract : Objectives: Pharmacopuncture is considered a unique new type of acupuncture in Korean medicine (KM). This study was performed to investigate the research trends regarding pharmacopuncture through a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer.Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection was searched for this study. The search terms were pharmacopuncture and pharmaco-puncture. The search was conducted on May 23, 2023, and 185 studies retrieved up to this date were included. Software VOSviewer version 1.6.19 was used to perform the bibliometric analysis. After data clearing, keyword co-occurrence and cooperation pattern analyses were performed.Results: The number of studies on pharmacopuncture have gradually increased since the mid-2000s, with the most published in 2020 (46 studies). The quality of the studies has also steadily increased, and recently, several randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture have been conducted. Moreover, this treatment has been investigated in the context of KM clinical practice guideline development in Korea. The scope of pharmacopuncture studies to date seems to be limited to musculoskeletal pain and bee venom pharmacopuncture. The researchers from Jaseng Medical Foundation have been the core researchers in the field of pharmacopuncture in Korea. They collaborated with researchers from universities or government-funded research institutes. However, small-scale research teams from KM clinics and university researchers were also identified as independent clusters.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture research has grown both quantitatively and qualitatively, but the scope needs to be further expanded. There is also a gap between the use of pharmacopuncture by KM doctors in clinical settings and pharmacopuncture research. Based on these findings, some suggestions for future studies in this field are discussed. Furthermore, these findings may be used as data to expand and globalize pharmacopuncture research in the future.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    The Effect of Glasthma Syrup in Asthma: a study protocol for a triple-blind randomized controlled trial

    Ali Reza Derakhshan1, Shahin Saeidinejat2*, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan3, Amir-Mohammad-Hashem Asnaashari4, Majid Mirsadraee5, Roshanak Salari1, Farahzad Jabbari-Azad6, Shima Jalali7, Shabnam Jalali7
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 233-241 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.233

    Abstract : Objectives: Asthma is a chronic disease, and the demand for herbal medicines in this field has increased in recent years. The new findings highlight the role of the gut-lung axis in the pathophysiology of asthma. Hence, this study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Glasthma syrup, an herbal formula based on Persian medicine, in improving asthma and regulating intestinal permeability. The formula consists of five herbal ingredients that have anti-inflammatory effects on the respiratory tract, also known as gut tonics.Methods: The study will be conducted as a placebo-controlled, triple-blind, randomized trial. It will consist of a 4-week intervention followed by a 4-week follow-up period. The target sample size is 20 patients with moderate asthma aged 18 to 60 years. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group in equal numbers. Patients in the experimental group will take Glasthma syrup (7.5 mL, twice a day), while patients in the control group will take a matching placebo. Both groups will receive a 4-week combination of a long-acting beta2 agonist and a leukotriene modulator as standard of care. Inhaled corticosteroids can be used as rescue medication as needed.Results: The primary outcomes are asthma symptom scale, lung function, and intestinal permeability. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, symptom recurrence rates, and blood tests. A safety assessment will also be conducted during the trial.Conclusion: In this trial, the effects of Glasthma syrup in patients with moderate asthma will be examined. The study will also assess the effects of the formulation on the gut-lung axis by simultaneously monitoring the gut permeability index, asthma symptoms, and lung function.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Vol.27 No.2
June, 2024

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Morphological and Chemical Analysis of Various Disposable Acupuncture Needles Used in South Korea

    Dong Yong Park1†, JiYoon Ahn2†, Hyeon Jeong Park1, Doo Suk Lee2, Dae-Hyun Jo2, Jonghoon Kim2, Choulmin Kim2, Heebum Chung2, Ji Hye Hwang3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 382-389 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.382

    Abstract : Objectives: The Korean Industrial Standard (KS) for sterile acupuncture needles was established in 2009 based on research on the quality control of acupuncture needles. We aimed to determine the quality of acupuncture needles available in South Korea in 2021 by examining their surface condition and chemical composition using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Methods: In South Korea, there are 23 brands of acupuncture needles, and we examined 10-15 needles from each brand, resulting in a total of 285 needles. The microstructures of the needles were assessed by SEM. Using SEM images, we evaluated the acupuncture needle tips for the following defects/aspects: scratches, lumps, detached coating, bent tip, and tip sharpness. EDS was used to determine the chemical composition of the selected acupuncture needles.Results: Overall, 88.4% of 285 needles were found to have at least one type of abnormality. The most frequently observed abnormalities were scratches and dents on the surface (68.1%), followed by detached coating (63.2%), and lumps (61.8%); blunt tips were observed in about 24% of them. Of 252 needles with at least one defect, 86.9% had two or more types of defects. The ratio of the number of needles with any defect to that of needles without any defect varied among brands, ranging from 50% to 100%. Regarding foreign materials, higher proportions of Si and O were observed on the needles, indicating incomplete or detached silicone coating.Conclusion: The quality of acupuncture needles varied among brands, suggesting that further improvements can be made through various inspection methods.

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  • Review Article2022-09-30

    Abstract : Objectives: In recent decades, the trend for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) has shifted toward alternative medicines that are obtained from plant sources. Existing literature suggests that phenolic compounds derived from plants possess promising health-promoting properties. This study aimed to discuss the role of plant-derived phenolic compounds in the effective treatment and management of diabetes.Methods: Information about plant secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, and their role in the treatment and management of diabetes was collected from different databases, such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords like secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, simple phenol, flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes, and diabetes were searched. Research and review articles with relevant information were included in the study.Results: Anti-diabetic studies of the four major classes of phenolic compounds were included in this review. The plant-derived phenolic compounds were reported to have potent anti-diabetic activities. However, each class of phenolic compounds was found to behave differently according to various mechanisms.Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds derived from natural sources display promising anti-diabetic activities. Based on the available information, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds obtained from various natural sources play key roles in the treatment and management of diabetes.

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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Therapeutic Potential of Active Components from Acorus gramineus and Acorus tatarinowii in Neurological Disorders and Their Application in Korean Medicine

    Cheol Ju Kim1, Tae Young Kwak1, Min Hyeok Bae1, Hwa Kyoung Shin1,2*, Byung Tae Choi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 326-343 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.326

    Abstract : Neurological disorders represent a substantial healthcare burden worldwide due to population aging. Acorus gramineus Solander (AG) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (AT), whose major component is asarone, have been shown to be effective in neurological disorders. This review summarized current information from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the effects of extracts and active components of AG and AT (e.g., α-asarone and β-asarone) on neurological disorders and biomedical targets, as well as the mechanisms involved. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and RISS, were searched using the following keywords: asarone, AG, AT, and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression and anxiety, epilepsy, and stroke. Meta-analyses and reviews were excluded. A total of 873 studies were collected. A total of 89 studies were selected after eliminating studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Research on neurological disorders widely reported that extracts or active components of AG and AT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating neurological disorders. These components also possessed a wide array of neuroprotective effects, including reduction of pathogenic protein aggregates, antiapoptotic activity, modulation of autophagy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, regulation of neurotransmitters, activation of neurogenesis, and stimulation of neurotrophic factors. Most of the included studies were preclinical studies that used in vitro and in vivo models, and only a few clinical studies have been performed. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on AG and AT therapeutic effects as a basis for further clinical studies, and clinical trials are required before these findings can be applied to human neurological disorders.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2023-03-31

    A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Studies on the Therapeutic Potential of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) in the Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    Rajkapoor Balasubramanian1*, Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen2, Sudha Muthusamy3, Mirunalini Gobinath4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 1-9 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.1

    Abstract : Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs frequently among women of reproductive age and is a polygenic, multifactorial, endocrine, and metabolic disorder. PCOS is becoming more common as a result of risk factors such as current lifestyle, overnutrition, and stress. The use of traditional herbal medicine is higher among the global population. Hence, this review article focuses on the potential of Nigella sativa to manage women with PCOS.Methods: A literature search was carried out using databases including Medline, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Embase, and Science Direct, as well as reference lists, to identify relevant publications that support the use of N. sativa in the management of women with PCOS.Results: Several clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive constituent of black seed (N. sativa), thymoquinone, has potential for managing women with PCOS. Moreover, N. sativa may help to manage oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in women with PCOS through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.Conclusion: N. sativa has potential for use as a herbal medicine for managing women with PCOS as an integrative medicine along with traditional and modern medicine in conjunction with calorie restriction and regular exercise.

    Abstract
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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

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