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  • Review Article2020-03-31

    Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

    Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

    Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Review Article2013-07-01

    Review of Cervi Cornu Parvum Pharmacopuncture in Korean Medicine

    Dong-Jin Lee1, Min Hwangbo2, Kang Kwon1, and Hyung-Sik Seo1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2013; 16(2): 7-14 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2013.16.008

    Abstract : Objective:The endpoint of this review is to investigate existing studies of Cervi cornu parvum(CCP) pharmacopuncture within Korean medicine journals in order to present a better research method in the future.Methods:We searched all the papers through six Korean electrical databases that included the title of " Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture" or " Cervi cornu parvum aqua-acupuncture". Articles that had been published until December 2012 were largely divided into experimental studies and clinical studies.Results:Fifty-three (53) experimental studies and six clinical studies were found. The number of published articles has been constantly increasing. Many of the experimental studies demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects for arthritis, and most of the clinical studies dealt with musculoskeletal problems.Conclusion:Various therapeutically significant effects of the CCP pharmacopuncture have been found through this review; however, more systematic clinical studies on the CCP pharmacopuncture seem to be necessary to substantially support its clinical effects.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2021-03-31

    Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pastinaca sativa

    Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari1,2, Gholamreza Kordafshari3, Maryam Moghimi4, Fatemeh Eghbalian1,2*, Dariush TaherKhani5
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 14-23 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.14

    Abstract : Objectives: Pastinaca sativa (parsnip), is a plant with nutritional and medicinal properties which has been used in all over the world and study about it is rare. In Persian Medicine parsnip is named as zardak and has many uses such as laxative, libido enhancer, kidney stone crusher and diuretic. Because the wide traditional usage of parsnip, in this review the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant are discussed.Methods: Some data base such as Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed were searched up to 2018 for studies about Pastinaca sativa. In this review study after consider to exclusion criteria, all of the English review and clinical trial were included.Results: Finally, 46 articles were selected for extraction data about the parsnip. Data extraction based on these studies the most important active ingredients of parsnip include coumarins, furanocoumarins, polyacetylenes, essential oils and flavonoids. Different studies determined that Pastinaca sativa has pharmacological effects in CNS, respiratory, gastrointestinal, liver, skin, cardiovascular and urogenital diseases.Conclusion: The most important active ingredients in Pastinaca sativa are furanocoumarins, flavonoids and polyacetylenes, and it has many pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, vasodilator, antifungal, antimicrobial and antidepressant. A main mentioned side effect of parsnip is phototoxicity that was usually reported in direct skin contact. However, family and Some properties and compounds of Pastinaca sativa and Daucus carota are similar but carrots are very popular nowadays. Due to abundant active components and few clinical studies of parsnip, more Studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of it.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Original Article2015-12-31

    Intravenous Toxicity Study of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in SD Rats

    Jun-Sang Yu1, Seung-Ho Sun2, Kwang-Ho Lee3, and Ki-Rok Kwon4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2015; 18(4): 38-44 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.036

    Abstract : Objectives:Radix Ginseng has been used for thousands of years to treat a wide variety of diseases. Radix ginseng has also been used as a traditional medicine for boosting Qi energy and tonifying the spleen and lungs. Traditionally, its effect could be obtained orally. Nowadays, a new method, the injection of herbal medicine, is being used. This study was performed to investigate the single-dose intravenous toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (WSGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods:All experiments were carried out at Biotoxtech, an institute authorized to perform non-clinical studies under the regulation of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). At the age of six weeks, 40 SD rats, 20 male rats and 20 female rats, were allocated into one of 4 groups according to the dosages they would receive. The WSGP was prepared in the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under the regulation of Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice (K-GMP). Dosages of WSGP were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal for the experimental groups, and normal saline was administered to the control group. The rat's general conditions and body weights, the results of their hematological and biochemistry tests, and their necropsy and histopathological findings were investigated to identify the toxicological effect of WSGP injected intravenously. The effect was examined for 14 days after the WSGP injection. This study was performed under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotoxtech.Results:No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test on the intravenous injection of WSGP, and no significant changes in the rat's general conditions and body weights, the results on their hematological and biochemistry test, and their necropsy findings were observed during the test. The local area of the injection site showed minial change. The lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes.Conclusion:These results indicate that WSGP is safe at dosages up to 1 mL/animal.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Original Article2015-07-01

    Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Seung-Ho Sun1, Sunju Park2, Jong-Jin Jeong1, Kwang-Ho Lee3, Jun-Sang Yu4, Hyung-Sik Seo5, and Ki-Rok Kwon6,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2015; 18(2): 42-50 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.014

    Abstract : Objectives:The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose.Methods:The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2).Results:No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats.Conclusion:Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Objectives:The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods:The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge). The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection) and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period.Results:No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal) groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests.Conclusion:The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

    Abstract
  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black cumin seeds) – Potential herb for COVID-19?

    Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 62-70 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.010

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Review Article2020-06-30

    Development of Hazardous Materials Management Standard for Decoction Type of Personalized Herbal Medicine

    Hye-In Jeong1, Kyeong-Han Kim1, Jae-Hee Won2, Gi-Un Sung2, Ji-Won Kim3, Ji-eun Han3, Angela Dong-Min Sung3, Eun-Jung Park4, and Soo-Hyun Sung3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 71-78 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.011

    Abstract : ObjectivesThis study was conducted to development of hazardous materials management standards for the decoction type of personalized herbal medicines (PHMs).MethodsThis study was conducted in two stages. We searched documents about criteria to use words such as 'Herb', 'Herbal medicine', and 'Botanical Drug’ and summarized the results. We organized the committee consisted of seven experts, and held two meetings to reach an agreement on hazardous management standards of the decoction type of PHMs.ResultsThe seven documents were presented in the literature review and six items related to hazardous management standards of decoction were identified. The second expert meeting brought that a total of six items, including heavy metal, pesticide residues, sulfur dioxide, benzopyrene, mycotoxin, and micro-organism limits, were selected for safety management of decoction type of PHMs. Also, the criteria and test methods for each standard were suggested for monitoring the decoction type of PHMs.ConclusionThe study suggested hazardous material management standards and criteria for the decoction types of PHMs. In the future, it would be necessary to conduct a pilot test to ensure the validity and credibility of the safety management standard and criteria. Furthermore, the government level safety management system should be introduced to verify the safety of decoction medicines.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Erratum2015-10-01

    Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    Junsang Yu1, Seungho Sun2, Kwangho Lee3, and Kirok Kwon4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2015; 18(3): 81 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2015.18.030
  • JoP
    Review Article2016-07-01

    History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    Kwang-Ho Lee1, Yoon-Young Cho2, Sungchul Kim3, and Seung-Ho Sun2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2016; 19(2): 101-108 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2016.19.010

    Abstract : Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture.Methods:Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic.Results:Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period. Research on the types of pharmacopuncture and diseases has to be expanded. Especially, studies on the use of MFP and EPP for treating patients with various diseases are needed.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2018-07-01

    Single-dose Intravenous Injection Toxicity of Water-soluble Danggui Pharmacopuncture (WDP) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Sunju Park1, Hae-Mo Park2, and Seung-Ho Sun3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2018; 21(2): 104-111 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2018.21.013

    Abstract : ObjectiveThis study is to evaluate both the single-dose intravenous injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of Water-soluble Danggui Pharmacopuncture (WDP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.MethodsToxicity experiments were conducted at Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory in Biotoxtech Co., according to the regulations of GLP. WDP injection of dose 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal were experimental groups and normal saline injection group was control group. WDP and normal saline were injected once to 6-week old 5 male and 5 female SD rats at the tail veins at approximately 2 mL/min. During 14 days after the injection, general symptoms were observed and weight were measured. After the observation period, hematological and blood biochemical examination, macroscopic autopsy, topical resistance test at the injection area were performed.ResultsRThe WDP 0.5 mL/animal injection group in 4 cases of male rats and all cases of female rats showed hematuria 30 minutes after the administration. However, after 1 hour, no more abnormal general symptoms were observed. The WDP did not affect weight, hematological and blood biochemical examination, macroscopic autopsy, and topical resistance test at the injection area.ConclusionWDP single dose intravenous injection results showed that WDP have no toxic effects and a lethal dose of WDP should be over 0.5 mL/animal in male and female rats under the study condition. So WDP may be safe.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-09-30

    Green Synthesis to Develop Iron-Nano Formulations and Its Toxicity Assays

    Smital Kulkarni1, Nimain Mohanty2, Nitin N. Kadam2, Niharika Swain3, Mansee Thakur4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 165-172 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.165

    Abstract : Objectives: In the past few years, herbal medicines have gained popularity over synthetic drugs because of their natural source and minimal side effects which has led to a tremendous growth of phytopharmaceuticals usage. With the development of nanotechnology, it provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations using nano-formulations. In spite of considerable quantity of antianemic preparations with different iron forms available, currently additives are used and represented in modern pharmaceutical market. Iron deficiency anemia is a major global public health problem which particularly affects pregnant women, children and elderly persons. The situation is complicated because of disadvantages and drug side effects from existing antianemic medicines. There is a great demand for the development of new antianemic preparations. Green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, possess high potential in this field. Methods: Our study focuses on developing green synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of 10-50 nm with spherical shape where different dosages were used –1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for exposure in Wistar albino female rats for 28 days. The toxicity was assessed using various parameters such as measurements of the rat body and organ mass, hematology, biochemical evaluation and histopathological examinations. Results: No significant differences were observed in body and organ weights. Hematological indices also indicated no significant differences whereas biochemical factors showed increase in levels of direct bilirubin and globulin of medium as well as high dose and SGPT levels were increased only in high dose. The major organs (heart, kidney and liver) showed histopathological alterations in 10 and 100 mg/kg whereas brain showed only in 100 mg/kg. Conclusion: The toxicity of IONPs was found to be more significant when the concentration was increased; however, low doses can be used for further investigation as an antianemic preparation.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2019-12-31

    Efficacy of Chamomile in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Zahra Bostani Khalesi1, Soheila Pirdadeh Beiranvand3, and Mahshid Bokaie2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2019; 22(4): 204-209 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.028

    Abstract : Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a vast array of physical and psychological symptoms. Of the herbal supplements mentioned for remedy PMS symptoms, chamomile used as an effective herbal medicine. The overall purpose of this review was to determine the efficacy of chamomile on the treatment PMS. An extensive research review using Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database, PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Psych INFO, Social Science Research Network, SID, Google Scholar, Iran Doc, Magiran and Iran Medex. Eligible studies were identified from English and Persian databases, published between 1990 and 2019. Studies were screened independently by two researchers who performed the data extraction. Of Twenty-seven studies identified, Eight RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Chamomile has been used to treat PMS relief because of therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory effects (Chamazulene and α-Bisabolol); anti-spasmodic effects (Apigenin, Quercetin, and Luteolin, Metoxicomarin, Matrisin, and Phytoestrogens); anti-anxiety effects (Glycine, Flavonoid). The results of this review show that Chamomile is effective for the treatment of PMS. Based on these results, we believe that Chamomile can be used as good herbal medicine to treat in women with PMS.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
March, 2021
Vol.24 No.1

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-09-30
    JoP

    Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Dorema Species (Apiaceae): A Review

    Elaheh Zibaee1, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri2, Zahra Boghrati1, Faeghe Farhadi3, Mahin Ramezani4,5, Seyed Ahmad Emami1*, Amirhossein Sahebkar6,7,8,9
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 91-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.91

    Abstract : The application of antique medical instructions, practices, skills and knowledge has been considered as the most affordable treatment in many developing countries. The use of these preparations and prescriptions over generations has made a useful and valuable guide for drug discovery in modern medicine. Medical herbs have been of a high importance for this purpose. The genus Dorema, of Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) has a wide use in ethnobotany and traditional medicine around the world. It has been used as a treatment for CNS disease, convulsion, upper respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorder and high blood sugar. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations have reported Dorema species to contain a wide range of constituents including terpenes, coumarins and phenolic compounds. The current review summarizes comprehensive information regarding botany, phytochemistry andpharmacological aspects of Dorema spp.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-09-30

    A Literature Analysis on Medicinal Use and Research of Cannabis in the Meiji Era of Japan

    Byung-Soo Ahn1,4, Seokhyun Kang2, Kyung Hoon Lee3, Seoyoon Kim1, Jin Sung Park1, Hyung-Sik Seo5*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 142-157 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.142

    Abstract : Cannabis is a historical plant which has been used as a medicine in East Asia. These days, there are active debates about using cannabis in clinical field. Collecting and comparing cannabis research articles which had been published in the Opening of Japan to spot the interactions between the traditional medicine of Japan, Rangaku which was established in Edo Period and the European medicine which is transferred after Perry Expedition is academically meaningful. This study searched publications, which were listed on Open-Access databases by Dec. 11th, 2019. We collected research articles which had been published from January 3rd, 1867 to July 30th, 1912 also known as Meiji era and uploaded on Open-Access databases. Our searching databases were J-stage, CiNii (Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator), Tokyo Metropolitan Library, The National Diet Library, IRDB (Institutional Repositories DataBase) and KAKEN (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Database). Searching keywords were cannabis, hemp and all their Japanese synonyms and available combinations. We selected final 15 studies which met every selection criteria in the 346,393 collected studies. Cannabis was prescribed in Meiji era of Japan to alleviate pain and cure the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and nervous system diseases such as indigestion, asthma, tuberculosis, gonorrhea and its complications, insomnia, and nervous prostration. Cannabis was medically used in Meiji era of Japan and the reporting and sharing of its clinical effect was published on the medical journals like present days. There were already Cannabis regulations in that era, but its medicinal use was more liberated than nowadays. It may be a chance to reconsider the current legal system, which strictly controls the use of Cannabis.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-09-30

    Abstract : Objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can influence all age groups. AD is associated with a poor health-related quality of life. This randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of Olivederma (combination of aloe vera and virgin olive oil) or betamethasone regarding disease severity, quality of life, serum IgE and eosinophil count. Methods: Thirty-six AD patients were randomly allocated to topical Olivederma or betamethasone, and were followed for 6 weeks. Results: Total SCORAD severity scores showed significant decrease in both groups, while it was more prominent in Olivederma group (64.5% improvement in Olivederma vs. 13.5% improvement in Betamethasone, p-value < 0.001). Quality of life (DLQI questionnaire) of AD patients was significantly improved after 6 weeks treatment with Betamethasone (22.3%, p < 0.001) and Olivederma (60.7%, p-value < 0.001). Olivederma group showed a significantly lower DLQI score in comparison with Betamethasone treated patients after 6 weeks of therapy (p < 0.001). Improvements in eosinophil count and serum IgE was observed. Conclusion: In summary, this study shows that Olivederma is superior to topical Betamethasone after 6 weeks of therapy with regard to disease severity, quality of life and eosinophil count.

    Abstract
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