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  • JoP
    Original Article2021-06-30

    Quality Control of Pharmacopuncture: A Comparative Study of Good Manufacturing Practice and External Herbal Dispensary Standards

    Ji-Eun Han1, Minjung Park2, Tteul-E-Bom An3, Jong-Hyun Park4, Danny Oh5, Kyeong Han Kim6*, Soo-Hyun Sung1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 59-67 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.59

    Abstract : Objectives: We aimed to compare the external herbal dispensary (EHD) evaluation criteria for pharmacopuncture and the Korea Good Manufacturing Practice (KGMP) sterile medicine standards to contribute to the establishment of quality control criteria for pharmacopuncture.Methods: We obtained the KGMP standards from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the pharmacopuncture certification criteria from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea. The EHD evaluation items were classified into three categories: facilities, quality control, and validation. The evaluation items were compared with the KGMP sterile medicine criteria to determine their conformance with each other, followed by a discussion among the committee of six experts and their consensus to suggest the items to complement the EHD evaluation criteria.Results: Among the KGMP sterile medicine criteria, 44 were related to the management of the facilities, and 32 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (66.7%). Fifty-eight KGMP criteria were related to quality management, and 42 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (72.4%). Twenty-five KGMP sterile medicine criteria were related to validation, and 11 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (44.0%). Sixteen items under the pharmacopuncture EHD criteria corresponded to the KGMP sterile medicine criteria based on the consent of the experts. Among these, 4 were related to facility management, 6 were related to quality control, and 6 were related to validation.Conclusion: For the safety and quality control of pharmacopuncture, there is a need to select the criteria for the mandatory items among the proposed pharmacopuncture-EHD criteria laws and systems to ensure that the pharmacopuncture materials are produced under the pharmacopuncture-EHD in compliance with the relevant requirements. More studies are needed to secure the safety level of pharmacopuncture materials corresponding to that of conventional medicine.

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  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

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  • Systematic Review2021-12-31

    Effect of Manual Acupuncture for Mild-to-Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Jeong Ho Huh1†, Hye In Jeong2†, Kyeong Han Kim3,4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(4): 153-164 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.4.153

    Abstract : Objectives: Despite the low cost and high accessibility of manual acupuncture (MA) treatments for the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), this intervention has not been uniformly evaluated in systematic reviews (SR), and no SR has evaluated MA monotherapy for CTS. This review was conducted to summarize the findings and undertake a quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture treatment methods for mild-tomoderate CTS to identify clinical evidence for the use of MA in CTS.Methods: We searched five databases for articles on relevant RCTs that were published until June 2021 without imposing specific restrictions, such as age or sex, on CTS patients. RCTs that evaluated MA were included without any restriction on comparator interventions. Measurement tools for evaluating pain reduction and functional improvement or for evaluating efficacy using electrophysiological indicators were included as outcome measures.Results: We included seven RCTs, of which three studies reported both post-treatment improvement effects and statistical significance using p-values for all outcomes. Five studies reported statistically significant intergroup differences (p-values for all outcomes) in posttreatment improvement. None of the studies reported severe adverse effects of MA. In all of the RCTs, the reporting rates of the 2c, 2a, and 6a items of STRICTA 2010 were 14%, 29%, and 29%, respectively. PC7 (Daereung) was used to treat CTS in all of the included studies.Conclusion: MA can be used for CTS treatment without serious adverse effects. PC7 was the most commonly used acupoint. In order to ensure objective and reliable reporting, accurate standardization of acupuncture treatment methods acupoint terms should be undertaken in future RCTs.

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  • JoP
    Review Article2020-12-31

    Different Point of View to the Autoimmune Diseases and Treatment with Acupuncture

    Betül Battaloğlu İnanç
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 187-193 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.187

    Abstract : Objectives: It was aimed to investigate the basic action mechanism of the autoimmune diseases and common features of all diseases. Autoimmune disease are classified organ specific and systemic.Methods: These diseases are seen systemic and disease start locations, origins seem differently. This makes learning and understanding difficult. Autoimmune diseases investi-gated for easier understanding. It was noticed that, autoimmune diseases’ starting places are specific and same all of them. This remarkable point is very important for acupuncture also. So; whole literatüre was researched and important point was found.Results: Whole autoimmune diseases are attack to mesodermal layers and mesodermal origin organs of the body’s. The common property of all these disease are same; Diseases start from the mesoderm and mesodermal layer even though their organ origins’ belongs to different germ layer. From this point of view, we were able to classify autoimmune dis-eases simply and it was planned how can we effect body in this context with acupuncture.Conclusion: And, when immunity comes into question, induction of adaptive immunity is depend on antigen presentation to T cells and this situation take place in the lymph node (LN) and also in the skin.When we sank the acupuncture needle into skin, signals create and start mesodermal contacts, during this time mesenchymal origin’ autoimmune cells are regulated with this signals.

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  • Systematic Review2021-06-30

    Effect of Complementary Medicine on Pain Relief and Wound Healing after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

    Azin Niazi1, Maryam Moradi2*, Vahid Reza Askari3, Neda Sharifi4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 41-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.41

    Abstract : Objectives: Cesarean sections are one of the common surgical procedures around the world. Management of cesarean section side effects, including pain, hematoma, delayed wound healing, is of particular importance in maintaining maternal health and ability to care for the baby. The tendency to use complementary medicine strategies is on the rise because of the easy treatment with low side effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of clinical trials performed in Iran and worldwide on the effect of complementary medicine on pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.Methods: PRISMA checklist was followed to prepare the report of this systematic review. The search process was carried out on databases on databases of Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, Scopus, Pub Med, Science direct, Medline and Cochrane library using keywords of cesarean, pain, wound healing, Herbal medicine, acupressure, massage, complementary medicine and their Persian equivalent and all possible combinations, from inception until February 2020. We used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the searched articles. According to the Jadad scale, the articles with a score of at least 3 were included in the study.Results: Finally, 28 clinical trials (with a sample size of 3,245) scored at least 3 on the Jadad scale were included into the analysis. This article reviewed 13 articles on medicinal herbs, 4 articles on massage, 1 article on reflexology, 2 articles on acupressure.Conclusion: According to the present review, the use of medicinal herbs was the most common method of complementary medicine in pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.

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  • Original Article2020-12-31

    The Analysis of Korean Clinical Studies on the Effect of Pharmacopuncture for Whiplash Injury after Traffic Accidents

    Jung Min Yun1, Na Yeon Hur1, Kyeong Han Kim2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 262-272 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.262

    Abstract : Objectives: Whiplash injury is one of the major diseases in recent times because of in-creasing traffic accidents. This review aims to analyze the overall trend of studies on phar-macopuncture for whiplash injury after traffic accidents.Methods: We searched through 4 Korean electronic databases from 2001 up to October 2020 for relevant clinical studies for whiplash injury after traffic accidents, regardless of the patients’ age, gender, or race. We included studies that had an intervention group re-ceiving pharmacopuncture therapy with or without other additional treatments, and also included studies that had a control group receiving sham treatment or active treatment such as physical therapy and herbal medication. For the clinical outcomes, we did not place any restrictions on evaluation scales if they are objective metrics.Results: We included 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 non-randomized con-trolled trials (nRCTs). 10 nRCTs were divided into 4 categories that were case-control stud-ies, case series, case report, and retrospective observational study. In RCTs, Hwangryun-haedoktang (黃蓮解毒湯) pharmacopuncture was the most frequently used. In nRCTs, Jungsong-ouhyul (中性瘀血) pharmacopuncture, and bee venom pharmacopuncture were the most frequently used. As target points of Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points, Jianjing (GB21), and Fengchi (GB20) were the most frequently used. As target points of Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points were the most frequently used. And as target points of Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Fengchi (GB20) was the most fre-quently used. Conclusion: Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture were mainly used for whiplash injury, and their usual target points were Jianjing (GB21), Fengchi (GB20), and Ashi-points. However, a high level of evidence should be conducted through studies with systematic methodology in the future.

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  • Original Article2021-06-30

    Regulatory Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Decreased β-Catenin Expression in Alopecia Models by Testosterone and PMA Treatment in Dermal Papilla Cells

    Yoon-Jong Park1, Jae-Min Ryu1, Han-Heom Na1,2, Hyun-Suk Jung2,3, Bokhye Kim2, Jin-Sung Park4, Byung-Soo Ahn4,5, Keun-Cheol Kim1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 68-75 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.68

    Abstract : Objectives: The hair follicle is composed of more than 20 kinds of cells, and mesoderm derived dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes cooperatively contribute hair growth via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We are to investigate β-catenin expression and regulatory mechanism by CBD in alopecia hair tissues and dermal papilla cells. Methods: We performed structural and anatomical analyses on alopecia patients derived hair tissues using microscopes. Pharmacological effect of CBD was evaluated by β-catenin expression using RT-PCR and immunostaining experiment. Results: Morphological deformation and loss of cell numbers in hair shaft were observed in alopecia hair tissues. IHC experiment showed that loss of β-catenin expression was shown in inner shaft of the alopecia hair tissues, indicating that β-catenin expression is a key regulatory function during alopecia progression. Consistently, β-catenin expression was decreased in testosterone or PMA treated dermal papilla cells, suggesting that those treatments are referred as a model on molecular mechanism of alopecia using dermal papilla cells. RT-PCR and immunostaining experiments showed that β-catenin expression was decreased in RNA level, as well as decreased β-catenin protein might be resulted from ubiquitination. However, CBD treatment has no changes in gene expression including β-catenin, but the decreased β-catenin expression by testosterone or PMA was restored by CBD pretreatment, suggesting that potential regulatory effect on alopecia induction of testosterone and PMA. Conclusion: CBD might have a modulating function on alopecia caused by hormonal or excess of signaling pathway, and be a promising application for on alopecia treatment.

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  • Abstract : The COVID-19, the most infectious pandemic disease arising due to SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) has caused huge issues globally. In this review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on the immune system of the human body and the protective mechanisms of the host immune system opposing viral infections. Here, we summarize the effect of the pandemic of the novel coronavirus disease on the immune system such as sleep and Behavioral Immune System (BIS) together with consideration of researcher’s observation points of view. We draw particular attention to recent up-to-date reports concerning COVID-19 drugs as well as information about the landscape document for COVID-19 vaccines released by WHO (World Health Organization), and some adverse events of COVID-19 vaccination. Additionally, can take part in the preventive appraise in opposition within this pandemic severe COVID-19 infections disease may affect some outcome in physical exercise, physical movement, healthy diets, and good nutrition are significant for supporting the immune systems and summarize AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) Indian medicinal systems guidelines for immunity boosting procedures during COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • Review Article2021-03-31

    Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pastinaca sativa

    Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari1,2, Gholamreza Kordafshari3, Maryam Moghimi4, Fatemeh Eghbalian1,2*, Dariush TaherKhani5
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 14-23 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.14

    Abstract : Objectives: Pastinaca sativa (parsnip), is a plant with nutritional and medicinal properties which has been used in all over the world and study about it is rare. In Persian Medicine parsnip is named as zardak and has many uses such as laxative, libido enhancer, kidney stone crusher and diuretic. Because the wide traditional usage of parsnip, in this review the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant are discussed.Methods: Some data base such as Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed were searched up to 2018 for studies about Pastinaca sativa. In this review study after consider to exclusion criteria, all of the English review and clinical trial were included.Results: Finally, 46 articles were selected for extraction data about the parsnip. Data extraction based on these studies the most important active ingredients of parsnip include coumarins, furanocoumarins, polyacetylenes, essential oils and flavonoids. Different studies determined that Pastinaca sativa has pharmacological effects in CNS, respiratory, gastrointestinal, liver, skin, cardiovascular and urogenital diseases.Conclusion: The most important active ingredients in Pastinaca sativa are furanocoumarins, flavonoids and polyacetylenes, and it has many pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, vasodilator, antifungal, antimicrobial and antidepressant. A main mentioned side effect of parsnip is phototoxicity that was usually reported in direct skin contact. However, family and Some properties and compounds of Pastinaca sativa and Daucus carota are similar but carrots are very popular nowadays. Due to abundant active components and few clinical studies of parsnip, more Studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of it.

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  • Original Article2020-12-31

    Cytotoxic Effect of Bee (A. mellifera) Venom on Cancer Cell Lines

    Sima Khalilifard Borojeni1, Hossein Zolfagharian1*, Mahdi Babaie1,2, Iraj Javadi3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 212-219 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.212

    Abstract : Objectives: Nowadays cancer treatment is an important challenge in the medical world that needs better therapies. Many active secretions produced by insects such as honey bees used to discover new anticancer drugs. Bee venom (BV) has a potent anti inflamma- tory, anti cancer and tumor effects. The aim of present study is evaluation of anticancer effects induced by Apis mellifera venom (AmV) on cell Lines.Methods: AmV was selected for study on cancer cell lines. Total protein, molecular weight and LD50 of crude venom were determined. Then, cells were grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. The A549, HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cell Lines were exposed by different concentration of AmV. The morphology of cells was determined and cell viability was studed by MTT assay. Evaluation of cell death was determined by and DNA fragmentation.Results: The results from MTT assay showed that 3.125 µg/mL of A549, 12.5 for HeLa and 6.25 µg/mL of MDA-MB-231 killed 50% of cells (p < 0.05). Morphological analysis and the results from hoescht staining and DNA fragmentation indicated that cell death induced by AmV was significantly apoptosis.Conclusion: The data showed that using lower dosage of AmV during treatment period cause inhibition of proliferation in time and dose dependant manner. Findings indicated that some ingredients of AmV have anticancer effects and with further investigation it can be used in production of anticancer drugs.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
September, 2022
Vol.25 No.3

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
Quarterly

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  • Original Article2021-06-30
    JoP

    Quality Control of Pharmacopuncture: A Comparative Study of Good Manufacturing Practice and External Herbal Dispensary Standards

    Ji-Eun Han1, Minjung Park2, Tteul-E-Bom An3, Jong-Hyun Park4, Danny Oh5, Kyeong Han Kim6*, Soo-Hyun Sung1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 59-67 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.59

    Abstract : Objectives: We aimed to compare the external herbal dispensary (EHD) evaluation criteria for pharmacopuncture and the Korea Good Manufacturing Practice (KGMP) sterile medicine standards to contribute to the establishment of quality control criteria for pharmacopuncture.Methods: We obtained the KGMP standards from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the pharmacopuncture certification criteria from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea. The EHD evaluation items were classified into three categories: facilities, quality control, and validation. The evaluation items were compared with the KGMP sterile medicine criteria to determine their conformance with each other, followed by a discussion among the committee of six experts and their consensus to suggest the items to complement the EHD evaluation criteria.Results: Among the KGMP sterile medicine criteria, 44 were related to the management of the facilities, and 32 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (66.7%). Fifty-eight KGMP criteria were related to quality management, and 42 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (72.4%). Twenty-five KGMP sterile medicine criteria were related to validation, and 11 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (44.0%). Sixteen items under the pharmacopuncture EHD criteria corresponded to the KGMP sterile medicine criteria based on the consent of the experts. Among these, 4 were related to facility management, 6 were related to quality control, and 6 were related to validation.Conclusion: For the safety and quality control of pharmacopuncture, there is a need to select the criteria for the mandatory items among the proposed pharmacopuncture-EHD criteria laws and systems to ensure that the pharmacopuncture materials are produced under the pharmacopuncture-EHD in compliance with the relevant requirements. More studies are needed to secure the safety level of pharmacopuncture materials corresponding to that of conventional medicine.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

    Abstract
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  • Systematic Review2021-12-31

    Effect of Manual Acupuncture for Mild-to-Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Jeong Ho Huh1†, Hye In Jeong2†, Kyeong Han Kim3,4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(4): 153-164 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.4.153

    Abstract : Objectives: Despite the low cost and high accessibility of manual acupuncture (MA) treatments for the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), this intervention has not been uniformly evaluated in systematic reviews (SR), and no SR has evaluated MA monotherapy for CTS. This review was conducted to summarize the findings and undertake a quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture treatment methods for mild-tomoderate CTS to identify clinical evidence for the use of MA in CTS.Methods: We searched five databases for articles on relevant RCTs that were published until June 2021 without imposing specific restrictions, such as age or sex, on CTS patients. RCTs that evaluated MA were included without any restriction on comparator interventions. Measurement tools for evaluating pain reduction and functional improvement or for evaluating efficacy using electrophysiological indicators were included as outcome measures.Results: We included seven RCTs, of which three studies reported both post-treatment improvement effects and statistical significance using p-values for all outcomes. Five studies reported statistically significant intergroup differences (p-values for all outcomes) in posttreatment improvement. None of the studies reported severe adverse effects of MA. In all of the RCTs, the reporting rates of the 2c, 2a, and 6a items of STRICTA 2010 were 14%, 29%, and 29%, respectively. PC7 (Daereung) was used to treat CTS in all of the included studies.Conclusion: MA can be used for CTS treatment without serious adverse effects. PC7 was the most commonly used acupoint. In order to ensure objective and reliable reporting, accurate standardization of acupuncture treatment methods acupoint terms should be undertaken in future RCTs.

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  • Systematic Review2021-06-30

    Effect of Complementary Medicine on Pain Relief and Wound Healing after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

    Azin Niazi1, Maryam Moradi2*, Vahid Reza Askari3, Neda Sharifi4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 41-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.41

    Abstract : Objectives: Cesarean sections are one of the common surgical procedures around the world. Management of cesarean section side effects, including pain, hematoma, delayed wound healing, is of particular importance in maintaining maternal health and ability to care for the baby. The tendency to use complementary medicine strategies is on the rise because of the easy treatment with low side effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of clinical trials performed in Iran and worldwide on the effect of complementary medicine on pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.Methods: PRISMA checklist was followed to prepare the report of this systematic review. The search process was carried out on databases on databases of Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, Scopus, Pub Med, Science direct, Medline and Cochrane library using keywords of cesarean, pain, wound healing, Herbal medicine, acupressure, massage, complementary medicine and their Persian equivalent and all possible combinations, from inception until February 2020. We used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the searched articles. According to the Jadad scale, the articles with a score of at least 3 were included in the study.Results: Finally, 28 clinical trials (with a sample size of 3,245) scored at least 3 on the Jadad scale were included into the analysis. This article reviewed 13 articles on medicinal herbs, 4 articles on massage, 1 article on reflexology, 2 articles on acupressure.Conclusion: According to the present review, the use of medicinal herbs was the most common method of complementary medicine in pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

    Abstract
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  • Original Article2021-06-30

    Regulatory Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Decreased β-Catenin Expression in Alopecia Models by Testosterone and PMA Treatment in Dermal Papilla Cells

    Yoon-Jong Park1, Jae-Min Ryu1, Han-Heom Na1,2, Hyun-Suk Jung2,3, Bokhye Kim2, Jin-Sung Park4, Byung-Soo Ahn4,5, Keun-Cheol Kim1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 68-75 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.68

    Abstract : Objectives: The hair follicle is composed of more than 20 kinds of cells, and mesoderm derived dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes cooperatively contribute hair growth via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We are to investigate β-catenin expression and regulatory mechanism by CBD in alopecia hair tissues and dermal papilla cells. Methods: We performed structural and anatomical analyses on alopecia patients derived hair tissues using microscopes. Pharmacological effect of CBD was evaluated by β-catenin expression using RT-PCR and immunostaining experiment. Results: Morphological deformation and loss of cell numbers in hair shaft were observed in alopecia hair tissues. IHC experiment showed that loss of β-catenin expression was shown in inner shaft of the alopecia hair tissues, indicating that β-catenin expression is a key regulatory function during alopecia progression. Consistently, β-catenin expression was decreased in testosterone or PMA treated dermal papilla cells, suggesting that those treatments are referred as a model on molecular mechanism of alopecia using dermal papilla cells. RT-PCR and immunostaining experiments showed that β-catenin expression was decreased in RNA level, as well as decreased β-catenin protein might be resulted from ubiquitination. However, CBD treatment has no changes in gene expression including β-catenin, but the decreased β-catenin expression by testosterone or PMA was restored by CBD pretreatment, suggesting that potential regulatory effect on alopecia induction of testosterone and PMA. Conclusion: CBD might have a modulating function on alopecia caused by hormonal or excess of signaling pathway, and be a promising application for on alopecia treatment.

    Abstract
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