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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Therapeutic Potential of Active Components from Acorus gramineus and Acorus tatarinowii in Neurological Disorders and Their Application in Korean Medicine

    Cheol Ju Kim1, Tae Young Kwak1, Min Hyeok Bae1, Hwa Kyoung Shin1,2*, Byung Tae Choi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 326-343 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.326

    Abstract : Neurological disorders represent a substantial healthcare burden worldwide due to population aging. Acorus gramineus Solander (AG) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (AT), whose major component is asarone, have been shown to be effective in neurological disorders. This review summarized current information from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the effects of extracts and active components of AG and AT (e.g., α-asarone and β-asarone) on neurological disorders and biomedical targets, as well as the mechanisms involved. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and RISS, were searched using the following keywords: asarone, AG, AT, and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression and anxiety, epilepsy, and stroke. Meta-analyses and reviews were excluded. A total of 873 studies were collected. A total of 89 studies were selected after eliminating studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Research on neurological disorders widely reported that extracts or active components of AG and AT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating neurological disorders. These components also possessed a wide array of neuroprotective effects, including reduction of pathogenic protein aggregates, antiapoptotic activity, modulation of autophagy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, regulation of neurotransmitters, activation of neurogenesis, and stimulation of neurotrophic factors. Most of the included studies were preclinical studies that used in vitro and in vivo models, and only a few clinical studies have been performed. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on AG and AT therapeutic effects as a basis for further clinical studies, and clinical trials are required before these findings can be applied to human neurological disorders.

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  • Review Article2023-03-31

    A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Studies on the Therapeutic Potential of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) in the Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    Rajkapoor Balasubramanian1*, Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen2, Sudha Muthusamy3, Mirunalini Gobinath4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 1-9 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.1

    Abstract : Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs frequently among women of reproductive age and is a polygenic, multifactorial, endocrine, and metabolic disorder. PCOS is becoming more common as a result of risk factors such as current lifestyle, overnutrition, and stress. The use of traditional herbal medicine is higher among the global population. Hence, this review article focuses on the potential of Nigella sativa to manage women with PCOS.Methods: A literature search was carried out using databases including Medline, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Embase, and Science Direct, as well as reference lists, to identify relevant publications that support the use of N. sativa in the management of women with PCOS.Results: Several clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive constituent of black seed (N. sativa), thymoquinone, has potential for managing women with PCOS. Moreover, N. sativa may help to manage oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in women with PCOS through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.Conclusion: N. sativa has potential for use as a herbal medicine for managing women with PCOS as an integrative medicine along with traditional and modern medicine in conjunction with calorie restriction and regular exercise.

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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

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  • Review Article2023-06-30

    A Review on Acupuncture Efficiency in Human Polycystic Ovary/Ovarian Syndrome

    Natália M. de Oliveira1,2*, Jorge Machado1,2,3, Lara Lopes1,2, Maria Begoña Criado2,4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 105-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.105

    Abstract : Objectives: Human Polycystic Ovary/Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), a frequent endocrine pathophysiology among women of fertile age, is associated with woman’s lifespan endocrine, metabolic and psychological implications. Long-term usage side effects of allopathic strategies and their low efficacy made complementary medicine treatments a relevant subject for these patients. The main aim of this work is to review the efficiency of the acupuncture treatment reported in the latest studies on literature regarding PCOS patients.Methods: A comprehensive literature search, in English language, about the use of acupuncture on the management of PCOS, was conducted in October 2020 using EBSCO, Cochrane, PubMed, Medline, Embase, databases for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials between 2015 and 2020 (09/2015-10/2020), following the PRISMA protocol.Results: This research led us to an analysis, according to PICOS, of six final papers selected among 178 in total. The articles addressed distinct aspects of the PCOS condition, diverse acupuncture techniques and different main and secondary outcomes in agreement to the respective main objective. According to this review, acupuncture seems to be useful for the treatment of this debilitating and chronic health condition which affects millions of women worldwide, many of them part of the workforce in their community.Conclusion: Despite of the display of these positive results addressing acupuncture treatments to manage PCOS major symptoms - whether they are reproductive, metabolic, or mental health features - more research is urgent. Randomized, double blinded controlled trials with improved quality design and following STRICTA and/or CONSORT recommendations are necessary to engage acupuncture as a standardized and scientific validated technique in PCOS condition.

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  • Systematic Review2022-09-30

    Effectiveness of Acupuncture, Mind and Body Practices, and Natural Products for Insomnia: an overview of systematic reviews

    Jin Ju Yeo1, Jang Won Lee1,2, Kyung Sik Kim3, Min Kyung Hyun2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 186-198 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.186

    Abstract : Objectives: This overview summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of complementary therapies for insomnia through systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs).Methods: A comprehensive literature search on SRs and MAs for complementary therapies for insomnia was conducted using six databases.Results: This overview included 30 SRs/MAs. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) analysis of insomnia included 383 randomized controlled trials and 31,748 participants. Twenty-four SRs/MAs (80%) out of 30 SRs/MAs reported a positive result, and six SRs/ MAs reported a partially positive result. The most frequently used form of acupuncture reported a positive effect in 89.5% (17/19) of SRs/MAs and a superior effect to western medicine, sham/placebo, and no treatment. The lack of protocol registration and the excluded studies list resulted in generally poor methodological and reporting quality in SRs/ MAs with AMSTAR 2.Conclusion: This overview confirmed that complementary therapies positively affected the PSQI scores in patients with insomnia. However, better-designed primary studies are needed to strengthen the relevant evidence in the future. A more stringent assessment of multiple systematic reviews 2 must be followed when performing SR and MA.

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  • Review Article2022-09-30

    An Overview on Plant Derived Phenolic Compounds and Their Role in Treatment and Management of Diabetes

    Himangshu Deka, Ananta Choudhury*, Biplab Kumar Dey
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 199-208 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.199

    Abstract : Objectives: In recent decades, the trend for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) has shifted toward alternative medicines that are obtained from plant sources. Existing literature suggests that phenolic compounds derived from plants possess promising health-promoting properties. This study aimed to discuss the role of plant-derived phenolic compounds in the effective treatment and management of diabetes.Methods: Information about plant secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, and their role in the treatment and management of diabetes was collected from different databases, such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords like secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, simple phenol, flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes, and diabetes were searched. Research and review articles with relevant information were included in the study.Results: Anti-diabetic studies of the four major classes of phenolic compounds were included in this review. The plant-derived phenolic compounds were reported to have potent anti-diabetic activities. However, each class of phenolic compounds was found to behave differently according to various mechanisms.Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds derived from natural sources display promising anti-diabetic activities. Based on the available information, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds obtained from various natural sources play key roles in the treatment and management of diabetes.

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  • Systematic Review2022-12-31

    Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Fire Needling and Warm Needling on Acute Gout

    Ji Hye Hwang1, Aejin Song2, Ho-Sueb Song1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 301-316 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.301

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of heat stimuli (e.g., fire needling, warm needling) in acupuncture for acute gout.Methods: Four international online databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) that used fire needling and warm needling for acute gout. The methodological quality of the RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB) tool. Thirteen RCTs (840 patients) were included and analyzed. Three evaluation tools (total effective rate, uric acid level, and pain score) were mainly used. Comparisons were made between Western medicine (WM) and i) fire needling or warm needling treatment alone, ii) fire needling and bloodletting combination treatment, iii) combination of fire needling, bloodletting, and herbal medicine, iv) warm needling (concurrently). Heat stimuli in acupuncture alone or in combination treatment were more effective in terms of the total efficacy rates, uric acid levels, and pain scores than WM alone.Results: In all the evaluation tools, the treatment effects in the fire needling alone or warm needling alone treatment group and the fire needling and bloodletting combination intervention group were significantly better than those in the WM control group. The warm needling and WM combination intervention groups also experienced significantly better treatment effects in terms of total efficacy rates and uric acid levels. Only the pain scores in the fire needling, bloodletting, and herbal medicine combination groups demonstrated significant improvement. Only four studies mentioned adverse reactions: one reported loss of appetite; three studies reported none. According to the Cochrane RoB tool, most studies showed either high or uncertain RoB.Conclusion: Heat stimuli during acupuncture could be effective for acute gout. However, as the included studies were regionally biased, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm the level of evidence.

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  • Systematic Review2023-09-30

    The Effects of Acupuncture on Crohn’s Disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Joon Hyun Bae1†, Seo Young Kang1†, Si Eun You1†, Hye In Jeong2, Soobin Jang3, Kyeong Han Kim4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(3): 211-226 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.3.211

    Abstract : Objectives: Crohn’s disease is a chronic gastrointestinal disease that belongs to inflammatory bowel disease. This systematic review aims to assess the level of evidence in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of acupuncture for Crohn’s disease.Methods: We searched 12 databases from the date of the establishment of each database up to May, 2023 for relevant RCTs. The risk of bias of each study was assessed independently by three reviewers. The level of evidence of meta-analysis was assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation).Results: A total of 12 studies were included. The effective rate (odds ratio [OR] 3.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 7.30) for mild to moderate Crohn’s disease patients showed a significant difference between the acupuncture with moxibustion group and the shamacupuncture with sham-moxibustion group. CDAI change (mean difference [MD] –74.15, 95% CI –93.28, –55.01) for mild to moderate Crohn’s disease showed a significant difference between the acupuncture with moxibustion group and the sham-acupuncture with sham-moxibustion group.Conclusion: Although acupuncture with moxibustion showed significant effects compared to sham-acupuncture with sham-moxibustion, the effect of acupuncture alone is inconclusive. Moreover, only the effect of acupuncture treatment on mild to moderate Crohn’s disease patients was derived as a remarkable result. To confirm the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for Crohn’s disease, studies using only acupuncture for intervention or more RCTs targeting various Crohn’s disease patients according to the CDAI are required.

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  • Abstract : Objectives: Pharmacopuncture is considered a unique new type of acupuncture in Korean medicine (KM). This study was performed to investigate the research trends regarding pharmacopuncture through a bibliometric analysis using VOSviewer.Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection was searched for this study. The search terms were pharmacopuncture and pharmaco-puncture. The search was conducted on May 23, 2023, and 185 studies retrieved up to this date were included. Software VOSviewer version 1.6.19 was used to perform the bibliometric analysis. After data clearing, keyword co-occurrence and cooperation pattern analyses were performed.Results: The number of studies on pharmacopuncture have gradually increased since the mid-2000s, with the most published in 2020 (46 studies). The quality of the studies has also steadily increased, and recently, several randomized controlled trials of pharmacopuncture have been conducted. Moreover, this treatment has been investigated in the context of KM clinical practice guideline development in Korea. The scope of pharmacopuncture studies to date seems to be limited to musculoskeletal pain and bee venom pharmacopuncture. The researchers from Jaseng Medical Foundation have been the core researchers in the field of pharmacopuncture in Korea. They collaborated with researchers from universities or government-funded research institutes. However, small-scale research teams from KM clinics and university researchers were also identified as independent clusters.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture research has grown both quantitatively and qualitatively, but the scope needs to be further expanded. There is also a gap between the use of pharmacopuncture by KM doctors in clinical settings and pharmacopuncture research. Based on these findings, some suggestions for future studies in this field are discussed. Furthermore, these findings may be used as data to expand and globalize pharmacopuncture research in the future.

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  • Review Article2023-06-30

    Efficacy of Herbal Medicines on Lung Function in Asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Alireza Derakhshan1†, Masoumeh Sadeghi2†, Amir-Mohammad-Hashem Asnaashari3*, Mohsen Dehghani4, Roshanak Salari1, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan5, Majid Mirsadraee6, Shahin Saeidinejat1*, Shima Jalali7, Shabnam Jalali7
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(2): 124-138 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.2.124

    Abstract : Objectives: The present study was designed to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of herbal medicines as add-on therapy on lung function in asthmatic patients.Methods: A comprehensive search of online databases was performed up to December 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials that used orally herbal preparations for asthma as add-on therapy. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool. The main outcome was percent predicted value of forced expiratory volume (% predicted FEV1). Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) estimate with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using inversevariance weights method while random effects meta-analysis was used, taking into account clinical and conceptual heterogeneity.Results: As a result, 1,525 studies were identified. 169 studies were reviewed in-depth and 23 studies met our systematic review inclusion criteria. Finally, nine randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Findings indicated that use of herbal medicines in patients with asthma significantly improved % predicted FEV1 (WMD: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.76-5.70), with no evidence for significant heterogeneity (p = 0.56 [Q statistic], I2 = 0.0%). In subgroup analysis by age, improvement in % predicted FEV1 was higher and significant in adults (WMD: 5.16; 95% CI: 2.68-7.63) compared to children (WMD = 1.27; 95% CI: −1.98-4.51). Sensitivity analysis showed the significant effect of herbal medicine consumption on improving FEV1 was consistently (range of summary WMDs: 3.27-4.59), indicating that the meta-analysis model was robust. There was no evidence of publication bias both visually and statistically.Conclusion: Findings support, the complementary use of herbal medicines resulted in significant improvement in the lung function compared to standard treatment in asthmatic patients with no considerable adverse events. This improvement is more likely to be observed amongst adults.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
Vol.27 No.2
June, 2024

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
Quarterly

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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Morphological and Chemical Analysis of Various Disposable Acupuncture Needles Used in South Korea

    Dong Yong Park1†, JiYoon Ahn2†, Hyeon Jeong Park1, Doo Suk Lee2, Dae-Hyun Jo2, Jonghoon Kim2, Choulmin Kim2, Heebum Chung2, Ji Hye Hwang3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 382-389 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.382

    Abstract : Objectives: The Korean Industrial Standard (KS) for sterile acupuncture needles was established in 2009 based on research on the quality control of acupuncture needles. We aimed to determine the quality of acupuncture needles available in South Korea in 2021 by examining their surface condition and chemical composition using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Methods: In South Korea, there are 23 brands of acupuncture needles, and we examined 10-15 needles from each brand, resulting in a total of 285 needles. The microstructures of the needles were assessed by SEM. Using SEM images, we evaluated the acupuncture needle tips for the following defects/aspects: scratches, lumps, detached coating, bent tip, and tip sharpness. EDS was used to determine the chemical composition of the selected acupuncture needles.Results: Overall, 88.4% of 285 needles were found to have at least one type of abnormality. The most frequently observed abnormalities were scratches and dents on the surface (68.1%), followed by detached coating (63.2%), and lumps (61.8%); blunt tips were observed in about 24% of them. Of 252 needles with at least one defect, 86.9% had two or more types of defects. The ratio of the number of needles with any defect to that of needles without any defect varied among brands, ranging from 50% to 100%. Regarding foreign materials, higher proportions of Si and O were observed on the needles, indicating incomplete or detached silicone coating.Conclusion: The quality of acupuncture needles varied among brands, suggesting that further improvements can be made through various inspection methods.

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  • Review Article2022-09-30

    Abstract : Objectives: In recent decades, the trend for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) has shifted toward alternative medicines that are obtained from plant sources. Existing literature suggests that phenolic compounds derived from plants possess promising health-promoting properties. This study aimed to discuss the role of plant-derived phenolic compounds in the effective treatment and management of diabetes.Methods: Information about plant secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, and their role in the treatment and management of diabetes was collected from different databases, such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords like secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, simple phenol, flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes, and diabetes were searched. Research and review articles with relevant information were included in the study.Results: Anti-diabetic studies of the four major classes of phenolic compounds were included in this review. The plant-derived phenolic compounds were reported to have potent anti-diabetic activities. However, each class of phenolic compounds was found to behave differently according to various mechanisms.Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds derived from natural sources display promising anti-diabetic activities. Based on the available information, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds obtained from various natural sources play key roles in the treatment and management of diabetes.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Therapeutic Potential of Active Components from Acorus gramineus and Acorus tatarinowii in Neurological Disorders and Their Application in Korean Medicine

    Cheol Ju Kim1, Tae Young Kwak1, Min Hyeok Bae1, Hwa Kyoung Shin1,2*, Byung Tae Choi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 326-343 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.326

    Abstract : Neurological disorders represent a substantial healthcare burden worldwide due to population aging. Acorus gramineus Solander (AG) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (AT), whose major component is asarone, have been shown to be effective in neurological disorders. This review summarized current information from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the effects of extracts and active components of AG and AT (e.g., α-asarone and β-asarone) on neurological disorders and biomedical targets, as well as the mechanisms involved. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and RISS, were searched using the following keywords: asarone, AG, AT, and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression and anxiety, epilepsy, and stroke. Meta-analyses and reviews were excluded. A total of 873 studies were collected. A total of 89 studies were selected after eliminating studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Research on neurological disorders widely reported that extracts or active components of AG and AT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating neurological disorders. These components also possessed a wide array of neuroprotective effects, including reduction of pathogenic protein aggregates, antiapoptotic activity, modulation of autophagy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, regulation of neurotransmitters, activation of neurogenesis, and stimulation of neurotrophic factors. Most of the included studies were preclinical studies that used in vitro and in vivo models, and only a few clinical studies have been performed. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on AG and AT therapeutic effects as a basis for further clinical studies, and clinical trials are required before these findings can be applied to human neurological disorders.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2023-03-31

    A Review of Clinical and Preclinical Studies on the Therapeutic Potential of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) in the Management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

    Rajkapoor Balasubramanian1*, Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen2, Sudha Muthusamy3, Mirunalini Gobinath4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 1-9 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.1

    Abstract : Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs frequently among women of reproductive age and is a polygenic, multifactorial, endocrine, and metabolic disorder. PCOS is becoming more common as a result of risk factors such as current lifestyle, overnutrition, and stress. The use of traditional herbal medicine is higher among the global population. Hence, this review article focuses on the potential of Nigella sativa to manage women with PCOS.Methods: A literature search was carried out using databases including Medline, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Embase, and Science Direct, as well as reference lists, to identify relevant publications that support the use of N. sativa in the management of women with PCOS.Results: Several clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that the major bioactive constituent of black seed (N. sativa), thymoquinone, has potential for managing women with PCOS. Moreover, N. sativa may help to manage oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in women with PCOS through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.Conclusion: N. sativa has potential for use as a herbal medicine for managing women with PCOS as an integrative medicine along with traditional and modern medicine in conjunction with calorie restriction and regular exercise.

    Abstract
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  • Case Report2023-03-31

    Suggested Integrative Approach for Hand Abscess with Cupping Therapy: a case study

    Emad Ahmed Fathy Hussein1*, Shahira Hassan Ibrahim Negm1, Tabish Ishaq Shaikh2, Ahmed Helmy Saleh3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2023; 26(1): 94-98 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2023.26.1.94

    Abstract : A forty-three-year-old male patient was diagnosed with an acute abscess in the dorsum of the right hand. On the 5th day of conventional pharmacological therapy the patient was still suffering, and was referred to the Outpatient department (OPD) to evacuate and drain the abscess and treat the edema around the area with Hijama (wet cupping therapy, WCT). The hand abscess was successfully cured within a week using an integrative approach of wet cupping therapy together with conventional drug therapy.

    Full Text PDF Cited By 18 Cite Share
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