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Sep, 2022 Vol.25 No. 3

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  • Systematic Review2022-09-30

    Ethnomedicinal Practices and Traditional Medicinal Plants of Barak Valley, Assam: a systematic review

    Pervej Alom Barbhuiya, Abdul Mannaf Laskar, Hemanga Mazumdar, Partha Pratim Dutta, Manash Pratim Pathak, Biplab Kumar Dey, Saikat Sen*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 149-185 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.149

    Abstract : Objectives: The Barak Valley is well known for its rich diversity of medicinal plants. Ethnomedicinal practices are prominent among Barak Valley’s major and minor ethnic groups. This systemic review focuses on traditionally used medicinal plants found in the Barak Valley as reported in different ethnobotanical surveys.Methods: We searched various databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, to find ethnomedicinal surveys conducted in the Barak Valley. The search was performed using different terms, including ethnomedicinal survey, folk medicine, indigenous knowledge, and Barak Valley. Potential articles were identified following the exclusion and inclusion criteria.Results: A total of eight ethnobotanical surveys were included in this study. We identified a total of 216 plant species belonging to 167 genera and 87 families, which are widely used by the ethnic communities who live in the rural areas of Barak Valley for the treatment of various diseases and ailments.Conclusion: Folk medicine is the result of decades of accumulated knowledge and practices by people who live in rural communities based on their needs and provides an important source of information to assist the search for new pharmaceuticals. Therefore, available information on traditional medicinal plants needs to be explored scientifically to find effective and alternative treatments for different diseases.

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  • Systematic Review2022-09-30

    Effectiveness of Acupuncture, Mind and Body Practices, and Natural Products for Insomnia: an overview of systematic reviews

    Jin Ju Yeo1, Jang Won Lee1,2, Kyung Sik Kim3, Min Kyung Hyun2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 186-198 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.186

    Abstract : Objectives: This overview summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of complementary therapies for insomnia through systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs).Methods: A comprehensive literature search on SRs and MAs for complementary therapies for insomnia was conducted using six databases.Results: This overview included 30 SRs/MAs. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) analysis of insomnia included 383 randomized controlled trials and 31,748 participants. Twenty-four SRs/MAs (80%) out of 30 SRs/MAs reported a positive result, and six SRs/ MAs reported a partially positive result. The most frequently used form of acupuncture reported a positive effect in 89.5% (17/19) of SRs/MAs and a superior effect to western medicine, sham/placebo, and no treatment. The lack of protocol registration and the excluded studies list resulted in generally poor methodological and reporting quality in SRs/ MAs with AMSTAR 2.Conclusion: This overview confirmed that complementary therapies positively affected the PSQI scores in patients with insomnia. However, better-designed primary studies are needed to strengthen the relevant evidence in the future. A more stringent assessment of multiple systematic reviews 2 must be followed when performing SR and MA.

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  • Review Article2022-09-30

    An Overview on Plant Derived Phenolic Compounds and Their Role in Treatment and Management of Diabetes

    Himangshu Deka, Ananta Choudhury*, Biplab Kumar Dey
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 199-208 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.199

    Abstract : Objectives: In recent decades, the trend for treating diabetes mellitus (DM) has shifted toward alternative medicines that are obtained from plant sources. Existing literature suggests that phenolic compounds derived from plants possess promising health-promoting properties. This study aimed to discuss the role of plant-derived phenolic compounds in the effective treatment and management of diabetes.Methods: Information about plant secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, and their role in the treatment and management of diabetes was collected from different databases, such as Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Keywords like secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, simple phenol, flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes, and diabetes were searched. Research and review articles with relevant information were included in the study.Results: Anti-diabetic studies of the four major classes of phenolic compounds were included in this review. The plant-derived phenolic compounds were reported to have potent anti-diabetic activities. However, each class of phenolic compounds was found to behave differently according to various mechanisms.Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that phenolic compounds derived from natural sources display promising anti-diabetic activities. Based on the available information, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds obtained from various natural sources play key roles in the treatment and management of diabetes.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Preliminary Mechanistic Study on the Trachea Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Tridax Procumbens in Male Wistar Rats

    Shakiru Ademola Salami1*, Hussein Mofomosara Salahdeen1, Babatunde Shuaib Anidu1, Babatunde Adekunle Murtala1, AbdulRasak Akinola Alada2
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 209-215 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.209

    Abstract : Objectives: Aqueous leaf extract of Tridax procumbens (ALETP) has potent relaxant activity. However, this relaxant activity in respiratory smooth muscle remains uninvestigated. This study investigates the effect of ALETP on the contractile activity of tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) in adult male Wistar rats.Methods: Twelve male Wistar rats divided into 2 groups and were treated with either 100 mg/kg of ALETP (ALETP treatment group) or vehicle (distilled water; control group) through oral gavage for 4 weeks. Dose responses of TSM from the 2 groups to acetylcholine (10–9 to 10–5 M), phenylephrine (10–9 to 10–5 M), and potassium chloride (KCl; 10–9 to 10–4 M) were determined cumulatively. Furthermore, cumulative dose responses to acetylcholine (10–9 to 10–5 M) after pre-incubation of TSM with atropine (10–5 M), L-NAME (10–4 M), indomethacin (10–4 M), and nifedipine (10–4 M), were determined.Results: Treatment with ALETP substantially inhibited TSM contraction stimulated by cumulative doses of acetylcholine, phenylephrine, and KCl. Furthermore, preincubation of TSM from the 2 groups in atropine significantly inhibited contractility in TSM. Incubation in L-NAME and indomethacin also significantly inhibited contractility in TSM of ALETP-treated rats compared to that of controls. Contractile activity of the TSM was also inhibited significantly with incubation in nifedipine in ALETP-treated rats.Conclusion: ALETP enhanced relaxant activity in rat TSM primarily by blocking the L-type calcium channel and promoting endothelial nitric oxide release. ALETP contains agents that may be useful in disorders of the respiratory tract.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Neuroprotective Effect of Root Extracts of Berberis Vulgaris (Barberry) on Oxidative Stress on SH-SY5Y Cells

    Elham Shahriari Rad1, Akram Eidi1, Dariush Minai-Tehrani2, Shahin Bonakdar3*, Shahram Shoeibi4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 216-223 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.216

    Abstract : Objectives: Oxidative stress plays a key role in chronic and acute brain disorders and neuronal damage associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other neurodegeneration symptoms. The neuroprotective effects of berberine and Berberis vulgaris (barberry) root extract against apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the human SH-SY5Y cell line were studied.Methods: The methanolic extraction of barberry root was performed using a maceration procedure. Oxidative stress was induced in SH-SY5Y cells by H2O2, and an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of berberine and barberry root extract. The cells were pretreated with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of each compound (including berberine, barberry root extract, and H2O2), and the anti-apoptotic effects of all components were investigated using RT-PCR.Results: The SH-SY5Y cell viability increased in both groups exposed to 75 and 150 ppm barberry extract compared with that in the H2O2-treated group. The data showed that exposing SH-SY5Y cells to 30 ppm berberine significantly increased the cell viability compared with the H2O2-treated group; treatment with 150 and 300 ppm berberine and H2O2 significantly decreased the SH-SY5Y cell viability and was associated with berberine cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of Bax decreased significantly under treatment with berberine at 30 ppm compared with the control group. A significant increase in Bcl-2 expression was observed only after treatment with the IC50 of berberine. The expression level of Bcl-2 in cells exposed to both berberine and barberry extracts was also significantly higher than that in cells exposed to H2O2.Conclusion: The outcomes of this study suggest that treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with barberry extract and berberine could suppress apoptosis by regulating the actions of Bcl-2 family members.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Interactive Effects of Nutrition Modification and Wet Cupping on Male Patients with Refractory Stable Angina

    Mohammad Abazari1, Mahdi Yousefi1, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi2, Hamideh Vahid1, Azadeh Saki3, Arash Gholoobi2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 224-232 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.224

    Abstract : Objectives: Routine therapies cannot control refractory stable angina, leading to a high economic burden and an impaired quality of life. Persian medicine incorporates exceptional attention to lifestyle and nutrition to prevent and treat various diseases. Previous studies have reported the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of wet cupping. The present study aims to determine the effects of nutrition and cupping on refractory stable angina patients.Methods: Forty male patients with refractory stable angina were randomly allocated to four groups, including nutrition modification based on Persian medicine, wet cupping, nutrition modification along with wet cupping, and control. The primary outcomes were the changes in pain score using a visual analog scale and quality of life using the Seattle angina questionnaire. The secondary outcomes were changes in the exercise test and blood pressure.Results: The results of the present study revealed that 30 days of treatment with nutrition modification based on Persian medicine, cupping, and modified nutrition and cupping along with standard treatment for stable angina significantly increased the patient’s quality of life and exercise test results while reducing pain, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Applying complementary Persian medicine methods such as nutrition modification and cupping along with the classical medical treatments may improve outcomes for refractory stable angina patients.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    The Effect of Glasthma Syrup in Asthma: a study protocol for a triple-blind randomized controlled trial

    Ali Reza Derakhshan1, Shahin Saeidinejat2*, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan3, Amir-Mohammad-Hashem Asnaashari4, Majid Mirsadraee5, Roshanak Salari1, Farahzad Jabbari-Azad6, Shima Jalali7, Shabnam Jalali7
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 233-241 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.233

    Abstract : Objectives: Asthma is a chronic disease, and the demand for herbal medicines in this field has increased in recent years. The new findings highlight the role of the gut-lung axis in the pathophysiology of asthma. Hence, this study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of Glasthma syrup, an herbal formula based on Persian medicine, in improving asthma and regulating intestinal permeability. The formula consists of five herbal ingredients that have anti-inflammatory effects on the respiratory tract, also known as gut tonics.Methods: The study will be conducted as a placebo-controlled, triple-blind, randomized trial. It will consist of a 4-week intervention followed by a 4-week follow-up period. The target sample size is 20 patients with moderate asthma aged 18 to 60 years. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group in equal numbers. Patients in the experimental group will take Glasthma syrup (7.5 mL, twice a day), while patients in the control group will take a matching placebo. Both groups will receive a 4-week combination of a long-acting beta2 agonist and a leukotriene modulator as standard of care. Inhaled corticosteroids can be used as rescue medication as needed.Results: The primary outcomes are asthma symptom scale, lung function, and intestinal permeability. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, symptom recurrence rates, and blood tests. A safety assessment will also be conducted during the trial.Conclusion: In this trial, the effects of Glasthma syrup in patients with moderate asthma will be examined. The study will also assess the effects of the formulation on the gut-lung axis by simultaneously monitoring the gut permeability index, asthma symptoms, and lung function.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Investigation of Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic and Anti-Obesity Effects of Euphorbia Resinifera L.

    Kaoutar Benrahou1*, Otman El Guourrami2, Hanae Naceiri Mrabti1, Yahia Cherrah1, My El Abbes Faouzi1
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 242-249 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.242

    Abstract : Objectives: The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiobesity effects of Euphorbia resinifera extracts and investigate the phenolic constituents and the toxicity of these extracts.Methods: Phytochemical screening was performed to detect polyphenols and flavonoids. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by four methods (DPPH, ABTS, H2O2, and xanthine oxidase inhibition). The hypoglycemic effect was determined by the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes in vitro and via a starch tolerance study in normal rats. The antiobesity effect was estimated by in vitro inhibition of lipase.Results: Phytochemical screening revealed that the ethanolic extract was rich in polyphenols (99 ± 0.56 mg GEA/g extract) and tannins (55.22 ± 0.17 mg RE/g extract). Moreover, this extract showed higher antioxidant activity in different tests: the DPPH assay (IC50 = 53.81 ± 1.83 μg/mL), ABTS assay (111.4 ± 2.64 mg TE/g extract), H2O2 (IC50 = 98.15 ± 0.68 μg/mL), and xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 10.26 ± 0.6 μg/mL). With respect to hypoglycemic effect, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed IC50 values of 119.7 ± 2.15 μg/mL and 102 ± 3.63 μg/mL for α-amylase and 121.4 ± 1.88 and 56.6 ± 1.12 μg/mL for α-glucosidase, respectively, and the extracts lowered blood glucose levels in normal starch-loaded rats. Additionally, lipase inhibition was observed with aqueous (IC50 = 25.3 ± 1.53 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC50 = 13.7 ± 3.03 μg/mL) extracts.Conclusion: These findings show the antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hyperlipidemic effects of E. resinifera extracts, which should be investigated further to validate their medicinal uses and their pharmaceutical applications.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Subcutaneous Injection of Bee Venom in Wistar Rats: effects on blood cells and biochemical parameters

    Yaser Yousefpoor1,2, Mahmoud Osanloo3, Mohamad Javad Mirzaei-Parsa4, Mohammad Reza Hoseini Najafabadi5, Seyyed Mohammad Hashemi6, Mitra Abbasifard7,8*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 250-257 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.250

    Abstract : Objectives: Bee venom (BV) therapy is performed by a bee sting or subcutaneous injection of BV. However, there is not much information on the effect of BV on blood parameters after entering the body. This project aimed to assess the side effects of subcutaneous BV injections in healthy rats by measuring the hematological and biochemical parameters.Methods: Various amounts of BV, including 100, 200, and 500 (μg/day), were subcutaneously injected into rats for 30 days. The results showed that BV affected the metabolism of the liver, kidney, and glands.Results: An increase in blood sugar and a decrease in other biochemical parameters, including cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine AST, ALT, ALP, and phosphorous, were observed. Results also showed increased counts of white blood cells, neutrophils (%), and platelets and decreased levels of red cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that BV therapy in medical clinics requires routine care and testing to prevent eventual metabolic and anemia side effects.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Hydroalcoholic Extract of Scrophularia Striata Attenuates Hypertrophic Scar, Suppresses Collagen Synthesis, and Stimulates MMP2 and 9 Gene Expression in Rabbit Ear Model

    Hatam Zarei1, Pari Tamri1*, Sara Soleimani Asl2, Meysam Soleimani3, Shirin Moradkhani4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 258-267 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.258

    Abstract : Objectives: Hypertrophic scars (HSs) are caused by abnormal wound healing. To date, no standard treatment has been made available for HSs. Scrophularia striata has been reported to accelerate wound healing and has the potential to prevent HS formation. In this study, we investigated the anti-scarring effects of S. striata extract (SSE) in a rabbit ear model of scarring.Methods: In this study, New Zealand white rabbit (weight: 2.3-2.5 kg) were used. In the prevention phase of the study, three test groups received 5%, 10%, and 15% ointments of SSE in the Eucerin base, the fourth group received Eucerin, and the fifth group received no treatment. The samples were obtained on day 35 after wounding. In the treatment phase of the study, the test groups received an intralesional injection of SSE (5%, 10%, and 15%), the fourth group received an intralesional injection of triamcinolone, the fifth group received a solvent (injection vehicle), and the sixth group received no treatment. To evaluate the anti-scarring effects of SSE, the scar elevation index (SEI), epidermis thickness index (ETI), collagen deposition, and MMP2 and MMP9 gene expression were evaluated.Results: A significant reduction in SEI, ETI, and collagen deposition was noted in animals treated with SSE compared with the control groups. In addition, topical SSE stimulated MMP2 and MMP9 gene expression.Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate the potential for SSE in the prevention and treatment of HS. SSE could be prepared as an appropriate formulation to treat wounds and prevent abnormal scarring.

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  • Original Article2022-09-30

    Single-Dose Intramuscular Toxicity Study of SU-Eohyeol Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Ji Hye Hwang1, Jaseung Ku2, Chul Jung3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(3): 268-275 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.3.268

    Abstract : Objectives: This toxicological study was performed to assess for potential toxicity and to determine the approximate lethal dose of SU-Eohyeol pharmacopuncture (SUEP) following a single intramuscular injection of SUEP into male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.Methods: The groups in our experiment consisted of an experimental group treated with SUEP at a dose of 1.0 mL/animal and a control group injected with a normal saline solution, and five male and female rats were placed in each group. Each animal was administered a single intramuscular injection. We monitored all rats for clinical signs and body weight changes for 14 days after administration. At the end of the observation period, the rats were euthanized and autopsied, and localized tolerance examinations were conducted at the site of administration of the test substance.Results: There were no deaths in either sex in the SUEP-treated group. There was no significant difference between the SUEP-treated group and the control group in the clinical signs and weight changes among the rats. In addition, no significant SUEP-related changes were observed on autopsy findings or local tolerance examinations at the injection site by histopathological examination.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the approximate lethal dose of a single intramuscular administration of SUEP in female and male rats under the conditions of this study is greater than 1.0 mL/animal. To determine the safety of the use of SUEP in Korean medical clinical practice, additional toxicity studies will be needed.

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  • Abstract : Objectives: Child and adolescent sleep is an important factor for brain and physical development. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of sleep disorders and nonorganic sleep disorders in children and adolescents and determine the type of utilization of medical institutions. This study analyzed the prevalence and type of medical institutions in Korean children and adolescents with sleep disorders and nonorganic sleep disorders.Methods: This study used data recorded in the Health Insurance Review and Assessment- National Patient Sample (HIRA-NPS) database from 2010 to 2017. Details of medical institution type and patient’s sex, age, and treatment type were extracted for patients younger than 20 years with sleep disorders and nonorganic sleep disorders.Results: Among 2,536,478 patients under age 20, we identified 3,772 patients with sleep disorders or nonorganic sleep disorders. From 2010 to 2017, the prevalence of sleep disorders in children and adolescents was 0.07% to 0.09%. The utilization rate of Korean medical institutions was 30.47%. The prevalence of nonorganic sleep disorders and the utilization rate of Korean medical institutions were 0.06% to 0.08% and 45.99%, respectively.Conclusion: The prevalence of sleep disorders and nonorganic sleep disorders in the under- 20 population was 0.14% to 0.16%. More than 70% of patients with nonorganic sleep disorder who were younger than 9 years used Korean medical institutions.

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  • Abstract : Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of SU-Eohyeol pharmacopuncture (SUEP) by assessing its potential to cause chromosomal abnormalities in Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IC).Methods: A dose-curve was conducted to determine the highest dose of SUEP. Doses of 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.313% were used, and no cytotoxicity or SUEP precipitation was observed. SUEP doses of 10, 5, and 2.5%, with positive and negative controls, were used in a chromosome aberration test.Results: In this study, the frequency of abnormal chromosomal cells in the SUEP group did not show a statistically significant difference from that of the negative control group in short-term treatments with and without metabolic activation and the continuous treatment without metabolic activation. Compared with the negative control group, the positive control group had a significantly higher frequency of cells with structural chromosomal abnormalities. This test’s results satisfied all conditions for determining the results.Conclusion: SUEP did not induce chromosomal aberrations under the conditions of this study. Other toxicity evaluations, safety studies in humans, and various clinical trials are required to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SUEP.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
September, 2022
Vol.25 No.3

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Original Article2021-06-30
    JoP

    Quality Control of Pharmacopuncture: A Comparative Study of Good Manufacturing Practice and External Herbal Dispensary Standards

    Ji-Eun Han1, Minjung Park2, Tteul-E-Bom An3, Jong-Hyun Park4, Danny Oh5, Kyeong Han Kim6*, Soo-Hyun Sung1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 59-67 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.59

    Abstract : Objectives: We aimed to compare the external herbal dispensary (EHD) evaluation criteria for pharmacopuncture and the Korea Good Manufacturing Practice (KGMP) sterile medicine standards to contribute to the establishment of quality control criteria for pharmacopuncture.Methods: We obtained the KGMP standards from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the pharmacopuncture certification criteria from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea. The EHD evaluation items were classified into three categories: facilities, quality control, and validation. The evaluation items were compared with the KGMP sterile medicine criteria to determine their conformance with each other, followed by a discussion among the committee of six experts and their consensus to suggest the items to complement the EHD evaluation criteria.Results: Among the KGMP sterile medicine criteria, 44 were related to the management of the facilities, and 32 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (66.7%). Fifty-eight KGMP criteria were related to quality management, and 42 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (72.4%). Twenty-five KGMP sterile medicine criteria were related to validation, and 11 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (44.0%). Sixteen items under the pharmacopuncture EHD criteria corresponded to the KGMP sterile medicine criteria based on the consent of the experts. Among these, 4 were related to facility management, 6 were related to quality control, and 6 were related to validation.Conclusion: For the safety and quality control of pharmacopuncture, there is a need to select the criteria for the mandatory items among the proposed pharmacopuncture-EHD criteria laws and systems to ensure that the pharmacopuncture materials are produced under the pharmacopuncture-EHD in compliance with the relevant requirements. More studies are needed to secure the safety level of pharmacopuncture materials corresponding to that of conventional medicine.

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  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

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  • Systematic Review2021-12-31

    Effect of Manual Acupuncture for Mild-to-Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Jeong Ho Huh1†, Hye In Jeong2†, Kyeong Han Kim3,4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(4): 153-164 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.4.153

    Abstract : Objectives: Despite the low cost and high accessibility of manual acupuncture (MA) treatments for the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), this intervention has not been uniformly evaluated in systematic reviews (SR), and no SR has evaluated MA monotherapy for CTS. This review was conducted to summarize the findings and undertake a quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture treatment methods for mild-tomoderate CTS to identify clinical evidence for the use of MA in CTS.Methods: We searched five databases for articles on relevant RCTs that were published until June 2021 without imposing specific restrictions, such as age or sex, on CTS patients. RCTs that evaluated MA were included without any restriction on comparator interventions. Measurement tools for evaluating pain reduction and functional improvement or for evaluating efficacy using electrophysiological indicators were included as outcome measures.Results: We included seven RCTs, of which three studies reported both post-treatment improvement effects and statistical significance using p-values for all outcomes. Five studies reported statistically significant intergroup differences (p-values for all outcomes) in posttreatment improvement. None of the studies reported severe adverse effects of MA. In all of the RCTs, the reporting rates of the 2c, 2a, and 6a items of STRICTA 2010 were 14%, 29%, and 29%, respectively. PC7 (Daereung) was used to treat CTS in all of the included studies.Conclusion: MA can be used for CTS treatment without serious adverse effects. PC7 was the most commonly used acupoint. In order to ensure objective and reliable reporting, accurate standardization of acupuncture treatment methods acupoint terms should be undertaken in future RCTs.

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  • Systematic Review2021-06-30

    Effect of Complementary Medicine on Pain Relief and Wound Healing after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

    Azin Niazi1, Maryam Moradi2*, Vahid Reza Askari3, Neda Sharifi4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 41-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.41

    Abstract : Objectives: Cesarean sections are one of the common surgical procedures around the world. Management of cesarean section side effects, including pain, hematoma, delayed wound healing, is of particular importance in maintaining maternal health and ability to care for the baby. The tendency to use complementary medicine strategies is on the rise because of the easy treatment with low side effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of clinical trials performed in Iran and worldwide on the effect of complementary medicine on pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.Methods: PRISMA checklist was followed to prepare the report of this systematic review. The search process was carried out on databases on databases of Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, Scopus, Pub Med, Science direct, Medline and Cochrane library using keywords of cesarean, pain, wound healing, Herbal medicine, acupressure, massage, complementary medicine and their Persian equivalent and all possible combinations, from inception until February 2020. We used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the searched articles. According to the Jadad scale, the articles with a score of at least 3 were included in the study.Results: Finally, 28 clinical trials (with a sample size of 3,245) scored at least 3 on the Jadad scale were included into the analysis. This article reviewed 13 articles on medicinal herbs, 4 articles on massage, 1 article on reflexology, 2 articles on acupressure.Conclusion: According to the present review, the use of medicinal herbs was the most common method of complementary medicine in pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.

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  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

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  • Original Article2021-06-30

    Regulatory Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Decreased β-Catenin Expression in Alopecia Models by Testosterone and PMA Treatment in Dermal Papilla Cells

    Yoon-Jong Park1, Jae-Min Ryu1, Han-Heom Na1,2, Hyun-Suk Jung2,3, Bokhye Kim2, Jin-Sung Park4, Byung-Soo Ahn4,5, Keun-Cheol Kim1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 68-75 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.68

    Abstract : Objectives: The hair follicle is composed of more than 20 kinds of cells, and mesoderm derived dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes cooperatively contribute hair growth via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We are to investigate β-catenin expression and regulatory mechanism by CBD in alopecia hair tissues and dermal papilla cells. Methods: We performed structural and anatomical analyses on alopecia patients derived hair tissues using microscopes. Pharmacological effect of CBD was evaluated by β-catenin expression using RT-PCR and immunostaining experiment. Results: Morphological deformation and loss of cell numbers in hair shaft were observed in alopecia hair tissues. IHC experiment showed that loss of β-catenin expression was shown in inner shaft of the alopecia hair tissues, indicating that β-catenin expression is a key regulatory function during alopecia progression. Consistently, β-catenin expression was decreased in testosterone or PMA treated dermal papilla cells, suggesting that those treatments are referred as a model on molecular mechanism of alopecia using dermal papilla cells. RT-PCR and immunostaining experiments showed that β-catenin expression was decreased in RNA level, as well as decreased β-catenin protein might be resulted from ubiquitination. However, CBD treatment has no changes in gene expression including β-catenin, but the decreased β-catenin expression by testosterone or PMA was restored by CBD pretreatment, suggesting that potential regulatory effect on alopecia induction of testosterone and PMA. Conclusion: CBD might have a modulating function on alopecia caused by hormonal or excess of signaling pathway, and be a promising application for on alopecia treatment.

    Abstract
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