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Dec, 2022 Vol.25 No. 4

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  • Systematic Review2022-12-31

    Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Efficacy and Safety of Fire Needling and Warm Needling on Acute Gout

    Ji Hye Hwang1, Aejin Song2, Ho-Sueb Song1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 301-316 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.301

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of heat stimuli (e.g., fire needling, warm needling) in acupuncture for acute gout.Methods: Four international online databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) that used fire needling and warm needling for acute gout. The methodological quality of the RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB) tool. Thirteen RCTs (840 patients) were included and analyzed. Three evaluation tools (total effective rate, uric acid level, and pain score) were mainly used. Comparisons were made between Western medicine (WM) and i) fire needling or warm needling treatment alone, ii) fire needling and bloodletting combination treatment, iii) combination of fire needling, bloodletting, and herbal medicine, iv) warm needling (concurrently). Heat stimuli in acupuncture alone or in combination treatment were more effective in terms of the total efficacy rates, uric acid levels, and pain scores than WM alone.Results: In all the evaluation tools, the treatment effects in the fire needling alone or warm needling alone treatment group and the fire needling and bloodletting combination intervention group were significantly better than those in the WM control group. The warm needling and WM combination intervention groups also experienced significantly better treatment effects in terms of total efficacy rates and uric acid levels. Only the pain scores in the fire needling, bloodletting, and herbal medicine combination groups demonstrated significant improvement. Only four studies mentioned adverse reactions: one reported loss of appetite; three studies reported none. According to the Cochrane RoB tool, most studies showed either high or uncertain RoB.Conclusion: Heat stimuli during acupuncture could be effective for acute gout. However, as the included studies were regionally biased, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm the level of evidence.

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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Polysaccharides Obtained from Vegetables: an effective source of alternative excipient

    Ananta Choudhury, Satyabrat Sarma*, Snehashis Sarkar, Madhusmita Kumari, Biplab Kumar Dey
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 317-325 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.317

    Abstract : Polymers are the major constructive material of pharmaceutical formulations that play a prime role in designing effective drug-delivery systems and releasing drugs at their sites of application. Polymers are composed of multiple repeating units of high molecular mass components with attendant properties. Most synthetic polymers are non-biocompatible, expensive, and extremely inclined to deliver adverse impacts. Meanwhile, edible polymers obtained from natural sources have gained remarkable recognition for their promising use in modern medicine. Moreover, polymers derived from natural sources are generally preferred due to certain of their unique features such as abundant availability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, economical, safe, and effective functions that fit the purpose. Polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and mucilage are identified as a major class of naturally obtained molecules that have a substantial role as functional polymers. This review summarizes the potential role of polysaccharides derived from vegetable sources such as adhesives, anticaking agents, binders, disintegrants, emulsifiers, film-framing agents, and thickeners. This is simply an opportunity to abandon synthetic excipients that hurt our bodies and think back to nature from where we originate.

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  • Review Article2022-12-31

    Therapeutic Potential of Active Components from Acorus gramineus and Acorus tatarinowii in Neurological Disorders and Their Application in Korean Medicine

    Cheol Ju Kim1, Tae Young Kwak1, Min Hyeok Bae1, Hwa Kyoung Shin1,2*, Byung Tae Choi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 326-343 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.326

    Abstract : Neurological disorders represent a substantial healthcare burden worldwide due to population aging. Acorus gramineus Solander (AG) and Acorus tatarinowii Schott (AT), whose major component is asarone, have been shown to be effective in neurological disorders. This review summarized current information from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the effects of extracts and active components of AG and AT (e.g., α-asarone and β-asarone) on neurological disorders and biomedical targets, as well as the mechanisms involved. Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and RISS, were searched using the following keywords: asarone, AG, AT, and neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression and anxiety, epilepsy, and stroke. Meta-analyses and reviews were excluded. A total of 873 studies were collected. A total of 89 studies were selected after eliminating studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Research on neurological disorders widely reported that extracts or active components of AG and AT showed therapeutic efficacy in treating neurological disorders. These components also possessed a wide array of neuroprotective effects, including reduction of pathogenic protein aggregates, antiapoptotic activity, modulation of autophagy, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, regulation of neurotransmitters, activation of neurogenesis, and stimulation of neurotrophic factors. Most of the included studies were preclinical studies that used in vitro and in vivo models, and only a few clinical studies have been performed. Therefore, this review summarizes the current knowledge on AG and AT therapeutic effects as a basis for further clinical studies, and clinical trials are required before these findings can be applied to human neurological disorders.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Protective Effects of Auraptene against Free Radical-Induced Erythrocytes Damage

    Khadijeh Jamialahmadi1,2, Amir Hossein Amiri3, Fatemeh Zahedipour2,4, Fahimeh Faraji5, Gholamreza Karimi6,7*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 344-353 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.344

    Abstract : Objectives: Auraptene is the most abundant natural prenyloxycoumarin. Recent studies have shown that it has multiple biological and therapeutic properties, including antioxidant properties. Erythrocytes are constantly subjected to oxidative damage that can affect proteins and lipids within the erythrocyte membrane and lead to some hemoglobinopathies. Due to the lack of sufficient information about the antioxidant effects of auraptene on erythrocytes, this study intended to evaluate the potential of this compound in protecting radical-induced erythrocytes damages.Methods: The antioxidant activity of auraptene was measured based on DPPH and FRAP assays. Notably, oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes was used as a model to study the ability of auraptene to protect biological membranes from free radical-induced damage. Also, the effects of auraptene in different concentrations (25-400 μM) on AAPHinduced lipid/protein peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content and morphological changes of erythrocytes were determined.Results: Oxidative hemolysis and lipid/protein peroxidation of erythrocytes were significantly suppressed by auraptene in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Auraptene prevented the depletion of the cytosolic antioxidant GSH in erythrocytes. Furthermore, it inhibited lipid and protein peroxidation in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, FESEM results demonstrated that auraptene reduced AAPH-induced morphological changes in erythrocytes.Conclusion: Auraptene efficiently protects human erythrocytes against free radicals. Therefore, it can be a potent candidate for treating oxidative stress-related diseases.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Assessment of Chronic Toxicity of an Ayurvedic Herbo-Metallic Formulation Rasaraj Rasa in Wistar Rats

    Chaitali S. Waghmare1*, Shivcharan R. Bidve1, Ramacharya V. Gudi2, Megha L. Nalawade2, Mukesh B. Chawda3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 354-363 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.354

    Abstract : Objectives: This study aimed to assess the adverse effects of Rasaraj Rasa tablets after repeated oral administration for 180 days in Wistar rats.Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups, of which three were treated with 54, 162, and 270 mg/kg body weight of Rasaraj Rasa, respectively, which correspond to one, three, and five times the proposed human therapeutic dose, for 180 days consecutively. The fifth group (satellite) also received 270 mg/kg body weight of Rasaraj Rasa for 180 days. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed, and their blood, serum, and organs were collected and examined using hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology tests. In contrast, the satellite group was kept for 4 weeks after treatment.Results: No significant treatment-related toxicological findings were observed in the clinical features, body weight, laboratory findings, and pathological findings of the high-dose treated groups, when compared to those of the control group.Conclusion: The no-observed-adverse-effect-level for Rasaraj Rasa in Wistar rats is set at 270 mg/kg body weight.

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    Original Article2022-12-31

    Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test of Verbenalin

    Hye Jeong Shin1, Yi Gun Lim1, Ji Su Ha2, Gabsik Yang1, Tae Han Yook1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 364-368 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.364

    Abstract : Objectives: Verbenalin is a compound found in herbs such as Cornus officinalis and Verbena officinalis. This study investigated whether verbenalin is safe by analyzing its mutagenicity.Methods: To examine the mutagenic potential of verbenalin, a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) was conducted with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains. Experiments with and without metabolic activity were performed.Results: The mean colony number was less than double that of the control. Growth inhibition and precipitation of verbenalin were not apparent in all strains at different concentrations regardless of metabolic activity.Conclusion: Verbenalin did not show any signs of mutagenicity in this study. Additional toxicity studies including repeated oral toxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity tests are needed.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Modulation of Inula racemosa Hook Extract on Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning in Hyperlipidaemic Rats

    Arun Kumar Tiwari1,2*, Pushpraj S Gupta1, Mahesh Prasad2, Paraman Malairajan1
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 369-381 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.369

    Abstract : Objectives: Hyperlipidemia (HL) is a major cause of ischemic heart diseases. The size-limiting effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), a cardioprotective phenomenon, is reduced in HL, possibly because of the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The objective of this study is to see what effect pretreatment with Inula racemosa Hook root extract (IrA) had on IPC-mediated cardioprotection on HL Wistar rat hearts. An isolated rat heart was mounted on the Langendorff heart array, and then ischemia reperfusion (I/R) and IPC cycles were performed. Atractyloside (Atr) is an MPTP opener.Methods: The animals were divided into ten groups, each consisting of six rats (n = 6), to investigate the modulation of I. racemosa Hook extract on cardioprotection by IPC in HL hearts: Sham control, I/R Control, IPC control, I/R + HL, I/R + IrA + HL, IPC + HL, IPC + NS + HL, IPC + IrA+ HL, IPC + Atr + oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, integrity, and hemodynamic parameters are evaluated for each group.Results: The present experimental data show that pretreatment with IrA reduced the LDH, CK-MB, size of myocardial infarction, content of cardiac collagen, and ventricular fibrillation in all groups of HL rat hearts. This pretreatment also reduced the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of MPTP opening by Atr diminished the effect of IrA on IPC-mediated cardioprotection in HL rats.Conclusion: The study findings indicate that pretreatment with IrA e restores IPC-mediated cardioprotection in HL rats by inhibiting the MPTP opening.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Morphological and Chemical Analysis of Various Disposable Acupuncture Needles Used in South Korea

    Dong Yong Park1†, JiYoon Ahn2†, Hyeon Jeong Park1, Doo Suk Lee2, Dae-Hyun Jo2, Jonghoon Kim2, Choulmin Kim2, Heebum Chung2, Ji Hye Hwang3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 382-389 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.382

    Abstract : Objectives: The Korean Industrial Standard (KS) for sterile acupuncture needles was established in 2009 based on research on the quality control of acupuncture needles. We aimed to determine the quality of acupuncture needles available in South Korea in 2021 by examining their surface condition and chemical composition using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Methods: In South Korea, there are 23 brands of acupuncture needles, and we examined 10-15 needles from each brand, resulting in a total of 285 needles. The microstructures of the needles were assessed by SEM. Using SEM images, we evaluated the acupuncture needle tips for the following defects/aspects: scratches, lumps, detached coating, bent tip, and tip sharpness. EDS was used to determine the chemical composition of the selected acupuncture needles.Results: Overall, 88.4% of 285 needles were found to have at least one type of abnormality. The most frequently observed abnormalities were scratches and dents on the surface (68.1%), followed by detached coating (63.2%), and lumps (61.8%); blunt tips were observed in about 24% of them. Of 252 needles with at least one defect, 86.9% had two or more types of defects. The ratio of the number of needles with any defect to that of needles without any defect varied among brands, ranging from 50% to 100%. Regarding foreign materials, higher proportions of Si and O were observed on the needles, indicating incomplete or detached silicone coating.Conclusion: The quality of acupuncture needles varied among brands, suggesting that further improvements can be made through various inspection methods.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Dual Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Treatment of A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells with Sweet Bee Venom in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    Yu-Na Hwang1, In-Seo Kwon1, Han-Heom Na1,2, Jin-Sung Park3, Keun-Cheol Kim1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 390-395 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.390

    Abstract : Objectives: Sweet bee venom (sBV) is purified from Apis mellifera, containing a high level of melittin—its main component. It has been used as a therapeutic agent for pain relief and anti-inflammation, as well as for treating neuronal abnormalities. Recently, there have been studies on the therapeutic application of sBV for anticancer treatment. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of sBV treatment in A549 human lung cancer cells.Methods: We used microscopic analysis to observe the morphological changes in A549 cells after sBV treatment. The MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxic effect after dose-dependent sBV treatment. Molecular changes in sBV were evaluated by the expression of apoptosis marker proteins using western blot analysis.Results: Microscopic analysis suggested that the growth inhibitory effect occurred in a dose-dependent manner; however, cell lysis occurred at a concentration over 20 μg/mL of sBV. The MTT assay indicated that sBV treatment exhibited a growth inhibitory effect at a concentration over 5 μg/mL. On fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis, G0 dead cells were observed after G1 arrest at treatment concentrations up to 10 μg/mL. However, rapid cell rupture was observed at a concentration of 20 μg/mL. Western blot analysis demonstrated that sBV treatment modulated the expression of multiple cell death-related proteins, including cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase 9, p53, Bcl2, and Bax.Conclusion: sBV induced cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells at a pharmacological concentration, albeit causing hemolytic cell death at a high concentration.

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  • Original Article2022-12-31

    Improvement Effect of Soyeom Pharmacopuncture on Gout via NLRP3 Inflammasome Regulation

    Sung Wook Kim1†, Jun Ho Lee1†, Hyeonjin Kim1†, Seong Hoon Lee1, Dajeong Jeong1, Hyuk Soon Kim2, Cheol-Jung Lee3, Dae Yong Kim1, Tae Han Yook1*, Gabsik Yang1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2022; 25(4): 396-403 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2022.25.4.396

    Abstract : Objectives: Gout is an inflammatory arthritis of the joints and soft tissues occurring due to deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which are caused by persistent hyperuricemia. Soyeom pharmacopuncture is one treatment method that has been traditionally used for pain management in Oriental medicine. However, studies on its effect in reducing gout pain have been insufficient. Therefore, we selected Soyeom pharmacopuncture among natural products used in Korea as the new target of our study.Methods: The effects of Soyeom pharmacopuncture were examined in mouse models of acute gout induced by injection of MSU crystals into footpads. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production were examined by immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as hallmarks of NLRP3 inflammasome and cytokine activation.Results: Soyeom pharmacopuncture reduced foot edema in gout-induced mice, as well as IL-1β, nitrite, IL-6, and TNF-α production. Moreover, Soyeom pharmacopuncture also reduced MSU-induced gout inflammatory gene expressions, specifically those in the NF-kB pathway.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture may serve as a new solution for other inflammatory diseases as well. Through active follow-up studies, we could thoroughly understand the clinical value of Soyeom pharmacopuncture.

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Journal Info

Journal of Pharmacopuncture
December, 2022
Vol.25 No.4

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Original Article2021-06-30
    JoP

    Quality Control of Pharmacopuncture: A Comparative Study of Good Manufacturing Practice and External Herbal Dispensary Standards

    Ji-Eun Han1, Minjung Park2, Tteul-E-Bom An3, Jong-Hyun Park4, Danny Oh5, Kyeong Han Kim6*, Soo-Hyun Sung1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 59-67 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.59

    Abstract : Objectives: We aimed to compare the external herbal dispensary (EHD) evaluation criteria for pharmacopuncture and the Korea Good Manufacturing Practice (KGMP) sterile medicine standards to contribute to the establishment of quality control criteria for pharmacopuncture.Methods: We obtained the KGMP standards from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and the pharmacopuncture certification criteria from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of South Korea. The EHD evaluation items were classified into three categories: facilities, quality control, and validation. The evaluation items were compared with the KGMP sterile medicine criteria to determine their conformance with each other, followed by a discussion among the committee of six experts and their consensus to suggest the items to complement the EHD evaluation criteria.Results: Among the KGMP sterile medicine criteria, 44 were related to the management of the facilities, and 32 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (66.7%). Fifty-eight KGMP criteria were related to quality management, and 42 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (72.4%). Twenty-five KGMP sterile medicine criteria were related to validation, and 11 pharmacopuncture evaluation items corresponded to these KGMP items (44.0%). Sixteen items under the pharmacopuncture EHD criteria corresponded to the KGMP sterile medicine criteria based on the consent of the experts. Among these, 4 were related to facility management, 6 were related to quality control, and 6 were related to validation.Conclusion: For the safety and quality control of pharmacopuncture, there is a need to select the criteria for the mandatory items among the proposed pharmacopuncture-EHD criteria laws and systems to ensure that the pharmacopuncture materials are produced under the pharmacopuncture-EHD in compliance with the relevant requirements. More studies are needed to secure the safety level of pharmacopuncture materials corresponding to that of conventional medicine.

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  • Systematic Review2021-12-31

    Effect of Manual Acupuncture for Mild-to-Moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Jeong Ho Huh1†, Hye In Jeong2†, Kyeong Han Kim3,4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(4): 153-164 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.4.153

    Abstract : Objectives: Despite the low cost and high accessibility of manual acupuncture (MA) treatments for the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), this intervention has not been uniformly evaluated in systematic reviews (SR), and no SR has evaluated MA monotherapy for CTS. This review was conducted to summarize the findings and undertake a quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture treatment methods for mild-tomoderate CTS to identify clinical evidence for the use of MA in CTS.Methods: We searched five databases for articles on relevant RCTs that were published until June 2021 without imposing specific restrictions, such as age or sex, on CTS patients. RCTs that evaluated MA were included without any restriction on comparator interventions. Measurement tools for evaluating pain reduction and functional improvement or for evaluating efficacy using electrophysiological indicators were included as outcome measures.Results: We included seven RCTs, of which three studies reported both post-treatment improvement effects and statistical significance using p-values for all outcomes. Five studies reported statistically significant intergroup differences (p-values for all outcomes) in posttreatment improvement. None of the studies reported severe adverse effects of MA. In all of the RCTs, the reporting rates of the 2c, 2a, and 6a items of STRICTA 2010 were 14%, 29%, and 29%, respectively. PC7 (Daereung) was used to treat CTS in all of the included studies.Conclusion: MA can be used for CTS treatment without serious adverse effects. PC7 was the most commonly used acupoint. In order to ensure objective and reliable reporting, accurate standardization of acupuncture treatment methods acupoint terms should be undertaken in future RCTs.

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  • Systematic Review2021-06-30

    Effect of Complementary Medicine on Pain Relief and Wound Healing after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

    Azin Niazi1, Maryam Moradi2*, Vahid Reza Askari3, Neda Sharifi4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 41-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.41

    Abstract : Objectives: Cesarean sections are one of the common surgical procedures around the world. Management of cesarean section side effects, including pain, hematoma, delayed wound healing, is of particular importance in maintaining maternal health and ability to care for the baby. The tendency to use complementary medicine strategies is on the rise because of the easy treatment with low side effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of clinical trials performed in Iran and worldwide on the effect of complementary medicine on pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.Methods: PRISMA checklist was followed to prepare the report of this systematic review. The search process was carried out on databases on databases of Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, Scopus, Pub Med, Science direct, Medline and Cochrane library using keywords of cesarean, pain, wound healing, Herbal medicine, acupressure, massage, complementary medicine and their Persian equivalent and all possible combinations, from inception until February 2020. We used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the searched articles. According to the Jadad scale, the articles with a score of at least 3 were included in the study.Results: Finally, 28 clinical trials (with a sample size of 3,245) scored at least 3 on the Jadad scale were included into the analysis. This article reviewed 13 articles on medicinal herbs, 4 articles on massage, 1 article on reflexology, 2 articles on acupressure.Conclusion: According to the present review, the use of medicinal herbs was the most common method of complementary medicine in pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.

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  • Systematic Review2021-06-30

    Effect of Complementary Medicine on Pain Relief and Wound Healing after Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review

    Azin Niazi1, Maryam Moradi2*, Vahid Reza Askari3, Neda Sharifi4
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 41-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.41

    Abstract : Objectives: Cesarean sections are one of the common surgical procedures around the world. Management of cesarean section side effects, including pain, hematoma, delayed wound healing, is of particular importance in maintaining maternal health and ability to care for the baby. The tendency to use complementary medicine strategies is on the rise because of the easy treatment with low side effects. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of clinical trials performed in Iran and worldwide on the effect of complementary medicine on pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.Methods: PRISMA checklist was followed to prepare the report of this systematic review. The search process was carried out on databases on databases of Magiran, SID, Iran Medex, Scopus, Pub Med, Science direct, Medline and Cochrane library using keywords of cesarean, pain, wound healing, Herbal medicine, acupressure, massage, complementary medicine and their Persian equivalent and all possible combinations, from inception until February 2020. We used the Jadad scale to assess the quality of the searched articles. According to the Jadad scale, the articles with a score of at least 3 were included in the study.Results: Finally, 28 clinical trials (with a sample size of 3,245) scored at least 3 on the Jadad scale were included into the analysis. This article reviewed 13 articles on medicinal herbs, 4 articles on massage, 1 article on reflexology, 2 articles on acupressure.Conclusion: According to the present review, the use of medicinal herbs was the most common method of complementary medicine in pain relief and wound healing after cesarean section.

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  • Original Article2021-06-30

    Regulatory Effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on Decreased β-Catenin Expression in Alopecia Models by Testosterone and PMA Treatment in Dermal Papilla Cells

    Yoon-Jong Park1, Jae-Min Ryu1, Han-Heom Na1,2, Hyun-Suk Jung2,3, Bokhye Kim2, Jin-Sung Park4, Byung-Soo Ahn4,5, Keun-Cheol Kim1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(2): 68-75 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.2.68

    Abstract : Objectives: The hair follicle is composed of more than 20 kinds of cells, and mesoderm derived dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes cooperatively contribute hair growth via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We are to investigate β-catenin expression and regulatory mechanism by CBD in alopecia hair tissues and dermal papilla cells. Methods: We performed structural and anatomical analyses on alopecia patients derived hair tissues using microscopes. Pharmacological effect of CBD was evaluated by β-catenin expression using RT-PCR and immunostaining experiment. Results: Morphological deformation and loss of cell numbers in hair shaft were observed in alopecia hair tissues. IHC experiment showed that loss of β-catenin expression was shown in inner shaft of the alopecia hair tissues, indicating that β-catenin expression is a key regulatory function during alopecia progression. Consistently, β-catenin expression was decreased in testosterone or PMA treated dermal papilla cells, suggesting that those treatments are referred as a model on molecular mechanism of alopecia using dermal papilla cells. RT-PCR and immunostaining experiments showed that β-catenin expression was decreased in RNA level, as well as decreased β-catenin protein might be resulted from ubiquitination. However, CBD treatment has no changes in gene expression including β-catenin, but the decreased β-catenin expression by testosterone or PMA was restored by CBD pretreatment, suggesting that potential regulatory effect on alopecia induction of testosterone and PMA. Conclusion: CBD might have a modulating function on alopecia caused by hormonal or excess of signaling pathway, and be a promising application for on alopecia treatment.

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  • Review Article2021-03-31

    Biological and Therapeutic Effects of Troxerutin: Molecular Signaling Pathways Come into View

    Zahra Ahmadi1, Reza Mohammadinejad2, Sahar Roomiani1, Elham Ghasemipour Afshar3, Milad Ashrafizadeh4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 1-13 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.1

    Abstract : Flavonoids consist a wide range of naturally occurring compounds which are exclusively found in different fruits and vegetables. These medicinal herbs have a number of favourable biological and therapeutic activities such as antioxidant, neuroprotective, renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a naturally occurring flavonoid which is isolated from tea, coffee and cereal grains as well as vegetables. It has a variety of valuable pharmacological and therapeutic activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor. These pharmacological impacts have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies. Also, clinical trials have revealed the efficacy of troxerutin for management of phlebocholosis and hemorrhoidal diseases. In the present review, we focus on the therapeutic effects and biological activities of troxerutin as well as its molecular signaling pathways.

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