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  • Review Article2021-03-31

    Biological and Therapeutic Effects of Troxerutin: Molecular Signaling Pathways Come into View

    Zahra Ahmadi1, Reza Mohammadinejad2, Sahar Roomiani1, Elham Ghasemipour Afshar3, Milad Ashrafizadeh4*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 1-13 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.1

    Abstract : Flavonoids consist a wide range of naturally occurring compounds which are exclusively found in different fruits and vegetables. These medicinal herbs have a number of favourable biological and therapeutic activities such as antioxidant, neuroprotective, renoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a naturally occurring flavonoid which is isolated from tea, coffee and cereal grains as well as vegetables. It has a variety of valuable pharmacological and therapeutic activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor. These pharmacological impacts have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies. Also, clinical trials have revealed the efficacy of troxerutin for management of phlebocholosis and hemorrhoidal diseases. In the present review, we focus on the therapeutic effects and biological activities of troxerutin as well as its molecular signaling pathways.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2021-03-31

    Review of Pharmacological Properties and Chemical Constituents of Pastinaca sativa

    Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari1,2, Gholamreza Kordafshari3, Maryam Moghimi4, Fatemeh Eghbalian1,2*, Dariush TaherKhani5
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 14-23 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.14

    Abstract : Objectives: Pastinaca sativa (parsnip), is a plant with nutritional and medicinal properties which has been used in all over the world and study about it is rare. In Persian Medicine parsnip is named as zardak and has many uses such as laxative, libido enhancer, kidney stone crusher and diuretic. Because the wide traditional usage of parsnip, in this review the composition and pharmacological properties of this plant are discussed.Methods: Some data base such as Cochrane, Scopus, PubMed were searched up to 2018 for studies about Pastinaca sativa. In this review study after consider to exclusion criteria, all of the English review and clinical trial were included.Results: Finally, 46 articles were selected for extraction data about the parsnip. Data extraction based on these studies the most important active ingredients of parsnip include coumarins, furanocoumarins, polyacetylenes, essential oils and flavonoids. Different studies determined that Pastinaca sativa has pharmacological effects in CNS, respiratory, gastrointestinal, liver, skin, cardiovascular and urogenital diseases.Conclusion: The most important active ingredients in Pastinaca sativa are furanocoumarins, flavonoids and polyacetylenes, and it has many pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, vasodilator, antifungal, antimicrobial and antidepressant. A main mentioned side effect of parsnip is phototoxicity that was usually reported in direct skin contact. However, family and Some properties and compounds of Pastinaca sativa and Daucus carota are similar but carrots are very popular nowadays. Due to abundant active components and few clinical studies of parsnip, more Studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of it.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2021-03-31

    Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity and Cytoprotective Potential of Extracts of Grewia Flava and Grewia Bicolor Berries

    Kabo Masisi1*, Riach Masamba1, Keletso Lashani1, Chunyang Li2, Tebogo E. Kwape1, Goabaone Gaobotse1
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 24-31 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.24

    Abstract : Objectives: Accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress. Increased production of ROS, such as superoxide anion, or a deficiency in their clearance by antioxidant defences, mediates cellular pathology. Grewia Spp fruits are a source of bioactive compounds and have notable antioxidant activity. Although the antioxidant capacity of Grewia Spp has been studied, there is very limited evidence that links the antioxidant activities of Grewia bicolor and Grewia flava to the inhibition of free radical formation associated with damage in biological systems.Methods: This study evaluated the protective effects of Grewia bicolor and Grewia flava extracts against free radical-induced oxidative stress and the resulting cytotoxicity effect using HeLa cells. Antioxidant properties determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity in Grewia flava (ethanol extract) than Grewia flava (water extract) and Grewia bicolor (ethanol and water extracts).Results: Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assay, cytotoxicity results showed that extracts of Grewia bicolor and Grewia flava were less toxic to HeLa cells at tested concentrations compared to the untreated control. This confirmed the low toxicity of these edible fruits at the tested concentrations in HeLa cells. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by pre-incubating HeLa cells with Grewia bicolor and Grewia flava extracts, with Grewia flava (ethanol extract) revealing better protection.Conclusion: The effect was speculated to be associated with the higher antioxidant activity of Grewia flava (ethanol extract). Additional studies will warrant confirmation of the mechanism of action of such effects.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2021-03-31

    Synthesis and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole Analogues for Potential Scaffold

    Sagar Sahu1, Tanesh Sahu2, Gunjan Kalyani1, Bina Gidwani1*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2021; 24(1): 32-40 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2021.24.1.32

    Abstract : Objectives: Pathogenic microbes are causal agents for various types of severe and even lethal infectious diseases. Despite of development in medication, bacterial and fungal infections still persist to be a vital problem in health care. Bacteria and several fungal species have shown resistance to antibiotics used in treatment to current medications. Therefore, it is a considerable field of interest in the design and development of novel compounds with antimicrobial activity. Methods: The compounds bearing a heterocyclic ring play an imperative role among other organic compounds with pharmacological activity used as drugs in human for control and cure of various infections. Thiadiazoles containing nitrogen–sulfur atom as part of their cyclic structure which shown wide-ranging application as structural units of biologically active molecules and are very useful intermediates in Medicinal Chemistry. Results: The effectiveness of the thiadiazole nucleus was established by the drugs currently used for the treatment of various infections. 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles and some of their derivatives are widely studied because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. Conclusion: In the present work, a series of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized by cyclization of a group of various benzaldehyde with thiosemicarbazide in the presence of various reagent like FeCl3, HCHO by losing a molecule of water. These derivatives were found to possess prominent antimicrobial activity.

    Abstract
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Aims & Scope

Journal of Pharmacopuncture(JoP) is an international, peer-reviewed open-access journal published in English by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI). The journal has provided high-quality papers quarterly since it was launched in 1997. Its ISSN was changed in September 2010 from 1226-4849 to 2093-6966 when its title was changed from daehanyakchimhakhweiji to Journal of Pharmacopuncture. The journal aims to publish evidence-based, scientific research papers in the multidisciplinary field of traditional and modern medicine through a strict review process by a panel of experts. As an international journal, Journal of Pharmacopuncture also aims to present major advances and new developments contributing to the advancement of complementary and alternative medicine, with a special focus on pharmacology, acupuncture and a combination of pharmacology and acupuncture. The journal is dedicated to disseminating current data and ideas and fostering debate on issues related to complementary and alternative medicine and to providing better information to both the general public and experts. In addition, the journal requires high standards of research ethics to maintain the integrity of science.
The official title of the journal is the 'Journal of Pharmacopuncture' and the abbreviated title is ‘J. Pharmacopunct’. For submission, see the details at http://www.journal-pharm.com

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Journal of Pharmacopuncture
March, 2021
Vol.24 No.1

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
Quarterly

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    • Systematic Review2020-06-30

      Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

      Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

      Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

      Abstract
    • Review Article2020-06-30

      Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black cumin seeds) – Potential herb for COVID-19?

      Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen1,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 62-70 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.010

      Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

      Abstract
    • Review Article2020-03-31

      Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

      Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

      Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

      Abstract
    • JoP
      Review Article2020-09-30

      Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Dorema Species (Apiaceae): A Review

      Elaheh Zibaee1, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri2, Zahra Boghrati1, Faeghe Farhadi3, Mahin Ramezani4,5, Seyed Ahmad Emami1*, Amirhossein Sahebkar6,7,8,9
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 91-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.91

      Abstract : The application of antique medical instructions, practices, skills and knowledge has been considered as the most affordable treatment in many developing countries. The use of these preparations and prescriptions over generations has made a useful and valuable guide for drug discovery in modern medicine. Medical herbs have been of a high importance for this purpose. The genus Dorema, of Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) has a wide use in ethnobotany and traditional medicine around the world. It has been used as a treatment for CNS disease, convulsion, upper respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorder and high blood sugar. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations have reported Dorema species to contain a wide range of constituents including terpenes, coumarins and phenolic compounds. The current review summarizes comprehensive information regarding botany, phytochemistry andpharmacological aspects of Dorema spp.

      Abstract
    • Abstract : ObjectivesRecently several Korean medical doctors have begun practicing applied kinesiology (AK). Although the efficacy of combining traditional acupuncture (TA) and pharmacopuncture (PP) on lumbar diseases such as lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar herniation of intervertebral disk (LHID) has been examined, the possible benefits of combining TA, PP and AK approaches have not been examined. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop effective treatment for lumbar disorders by combining TA, PP, and AK treatments.MethodsTwenty-four patients hospitalized at Samse Korean Traditional Medicine Hospital between March and September 2018 with L5 or S1 root radiculopathy associated with LSS and LHID were included in this study. They were treated for 10 days with TA, PP and AK approaches that included category block, manipulation and strain/counterstrain treatments. The primary outcomes were mainly assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association lumbar scores (JOALS). JOALS were determined before the start of treatment as well as five and 10 days after treatment started.ResultsThe treatments improved the lumbar condition of the patients based on JOA pain score.ConclusionThe combined TA, PP and AK treatments were effective in treating spinal diseases of resident patients. Prospective, controlled, and relevant protocols using multimodal strategies to define the role of TA, PP and AK are needed.

      Abstract
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    • Systematic Review2020-06-30

      Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

      Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

      Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

      Abstract
    • Review Article2020-06-30

      Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black cumin seeds) – Potential herb for COVID-19?

      Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen1,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 62-70 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.010

      Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

      Abstract
    • Review Article2020-03-31

      Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

      Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

      Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

      Abstract
    • JoP
      Review Article2020-09-30

      Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Dorema Species (Apiaceae): A Review

      Elaheh Zibaee1, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri2, Zahra Boghrati1, Faeghe Farhadi3, Mahin Ramezani4,5, Seyed Ahmad Emami1*, Amirhossein Sahebkar6,7,8,9
      J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 91-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.91

      Abstract : The application of antique medical instructions, practices, skills and knowledge has been considered as the most affordable treatment in many developing countries. The use of these preparations and prescriptions over generations has made a useful and valuable guide for drug discovery in modern medicine. Medical herbs have been of a high importance for this purpose. The genus Dorema, of Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) has a wide use in ethnobotany and traditional medicine around the world. It has been used as a treatment for CNS disease, convulsion, upper respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorder and high blood sugar. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations have reported Dorema species to contain a wide range of constituents including terpenes, coumarins and phenolic compounds. The current review summarizes comprehensive information regarding botany, phytochemistry andpharmacological aspects of Dorema spp.

      Abstract
    • Abstract : ObjectivesRecently several Korean medical doctors have begun practicing applied kinesiology (AK). Although the efficacy of combining traditional acupuncture (TA) and pharmacopuncture (PP) on lumbar diseases such as lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar herniation of intervertebral disk (LHID) has been examined, the possible benefits of combining TA, PP and AK approaches have not been examined. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop effective treatment for lumbar disorders by combining TA, PP, and AK treatments.MethodsTwenty-four patients hospitalized at Samse Korean Traditional Medicine Hospital between March and September 2018 with L5 or S1 root radiculopathy associated with LSS and LHID were included in this study. They were treated for 10 days with TA, PP and AK approaches that included category block, manipulation and strain/counterstrain treatments. The primary outcomes were mainly assessed using Japanese Orthopedic Association lumbar scores (JOALS). JOALS were determined before the start of treatment as well as five and 10 days after treatment started.ResultsThe treatments improved the lumbar condition of the patients based on JOA pain score.ConclusionThe combined TA, PP and AK treatments were effective in treating spinal diseases of resident patients. Prospective, controlled, and relevant protocols using multimodal strategies to define the role of TA, PP and AK are needed.

      Abstract
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