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  • Original Article2019-10-01

    Evaluation of the Single-Dose Toxicity of TA Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Ji Hye Hwang1,*, Hyo Won Jung2, and Chul Jung3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2019; 22(3): 171-175 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.023

    Abstract : ObjectivesTA is a polyherbal extract comprising seven herbs, typically used for the pharmacopuncture treatment of patients with traffic accident-related injuries and musculoskeletal diseases. This animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety of the TA extract, using a single-dose toxicity test.MethodsThe dose range and sampling time were first established. Six-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were administered 1.0 mL of TA or normal saline (control), intramuscularly, for the single-dose toxicity test. The general condition, mortality, and histology of all rats were observed for 2 weeks.ResultsNo abnormal symptoms or deaths were observed in any group. The body weights of the rats in the TA and control groups were similar. No significant differences in histopathology were observed between the groups.ConclusionOur study indicates that 1.0 mL of TA extract may be safely administered for pharmacopuncture for treatment of patients in traditional medicine clinics.

    Abstract
  • Opinions2020-06-30

    Creation of Novel Antihypertensive Agent via Structure-Activity Relationship Study on Phytochemicals towards Vasorelaxant Activity

    Yean Chun Loh1, Sock Ying Chan1, Chuan Wei Oo1,*, and Mun Fei Yam2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 88-89 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.013
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Current and Future molecular mechanism in Inflammation and Arthritis

    Vikash Sharma1, Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Shiv Shankar Shukla1, and Ravindra Kumar Pandey1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 54-61 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.009

    Abstract : Inflammation is an immune response of the human body but excessive inflammation is taken as a major factor in the development of many diseases including autoimmune disorders, cancer and nerve disorders etc. In this regards the need is to suppress the inflammatory response. Suppression of extra or imperfect inflammatory response is not a big deal provided there is an exact knowledge of particular target in the body. Recent advancements in Pharmacological aspect made the therapy with improved outcomes in number of patients. Anticytokine therapy might be one of the important and novel approaches for inflammation and Arthritis. This can be achieved only when we go through the pathophysiology of expression and identification of mediators. Let’s take an example of cytokine like interleukins (IL), chemokines, interferons (INF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α), growth factors, and colony stimulating factors) release pathway which is a major signalling protein in inflammatory response. In the present study we have reviewed the recent pharmacological therapeutic advancement, inflammatory mediators, receptors, and major signalling pathways. Such information will not only provide the idea about the mechanism of action of Pharmaceuticals and molecular targets but also it provides a new aspect for drug designing and new corrective approaches in existing clinical medicines. This study will be a source of good information for the researchers working in the area of drug designing and molecular Pharmacology especially in anti-inflammatory and anti arthritic medicines for target based therapy.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black cumin seeds) – Potential herb for COVID-19?

    Naina Mohamed Pakkir Maideen1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 62-70 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.010

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-06-30

    Variations in Ginsenosides of Raw Ginseng According to Heating Temperature and Time

    Chan Joong Kim1,4, Bo Mi Kim2, Cheon Suk Kim3, Jung Yeon Baek4, and In Chan Jung4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 79-87 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.012

    Abstract : ObjectivesGinsenosides found in ginseng, and the hydrolysates derived from their conversion, exhibit diverse pharmacological characteristics [1]. These have been shown to include anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, and anti-metastatic effects, as well as being able to provide hepatic and neuroprotective effects, immunomodulation, vasodilation, promotion of insulin secretion, and antioxidant activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how quickly the ginsenosides decompose and what kinds of degradation products are created under physicochemical processing conditions that don’t involve toxic chemicals or other treatments that may be harmful.MethodsThe formation of ginsenoside-Rg2 and ginsenoside-Rg3 was examined. These demonstrated diverse pharmacological effects.ResultsWe also investigated physicochemical factors affecting their conversion. The heating temperatures and times yielding the highest concentration of ginsenosides (-Rb1, -Rb2, -Rc, -Rd, -Rf, -Rg1, and –Re) were examined. Additionally, the heating temperatures and rates of conversion of these ginsenosides into new ‘ginseng saponins’, were examined.ConclusionIn conclusion, obtained provide us with effective technology to control the concentration of both ginsenosides and the downstream converted saponins (ginsenoside-Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 etc.), as well as identifying the processing conditions which enable an enrichment in concentration of these compounds.

    Abstract
  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Development of Hazardous Materials Management Standard for Decoction Type of Personalized Herbal Medicine

    Hye-In Jeong1, Kyeong-Han Kim1, Jae-Hee Won2, Gi-Un Sung2, Ji-Won Kim3, Ji-eun Han3, Angela Dong-Min Sung3, Eun-Jung Park4, and Soo-Hyun Sung3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 71-78 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.011

    Abstract : ObjectivesThis study was conducted to development of hazardous materials management standards for the decoction type of personalized herbal medicines (PHMs).MethodsThis study was conducted in two stages. We searched documents about criteria to use words such as 'Herb', 'Herbal medicine', and 'Botanical Drug’ and summarized the results. We organized the committee consisted of seven experts, and held two meetings to reach an agreement on hazardous management standards of the decoction type of PHMs.ResultsThe seven documents were presented in the literature review and six items related to hazardous management standards of decoction were identified. The second expert meeting brought that a total of six items, including heavy metal, pesticide residues, sulfur dioxide, benzopyrene, mycotoxin, and micro-organism limits, were selected for safety management of decoction type of PHMs. Also, the criteria and test methods for each standard were suggested for monitoring the decoction type of PHMs.ConclusionThe study suggested hazardous material management standards and criteria for the decoction types of PHMs. In the future, it would be necessary to conduct a pilot test to ensure the validity and credibility of the safety management standard and criteria. Furthermore, the government level safety management system should be introduced to verify the safety of decoction medicines.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-03-31

    Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

    Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

    Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2020-03-31

    Round Acupuncture for the Treatment of Recurrent Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Ju-ran Kim1, Yun Kyu Lee1, Hyun-Jong Lee1, and Jae Soo Kim1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 37-41 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.006

    Abstract : ObjectivesRound Acupuncture having blunt end has developed from acupotomy. This case report is to find out that Round Acupuncture is effective in treating patients with recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which has not improved by steroid injection or acupotomy.MethodsRound Acupuncture was inserted into the distal fibers of transverse carpal ligament and released toward the proximal fibers. Treatment was performed three times in total. T ingling, numbn ess, night pain and swelling sensation were assessed, and provocative maneuvers were also used.ResultsAfter treat ment, all symptoms completely disappeared and the patient had no recurrence until 3 months after treatment.ConclusionRound Acupuncture co uld be an effective treatment for recurrent CTS.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2018-12-31

    Korean Medicine for Treating Facial Palsy

    Hye In Jeong1,+, Kyeong Han Kim2,+, Yong Taek Oh3, Yoo Min Choi4, Beom Yong Song4, Jong Uk Kim4, and Tae-Han Yook4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2018; 21(4): 214-225 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2018.21.025

    Abstract : ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to analyze case reports on and to study Korean medicine treatments of facial palsy.MethodsStudies published after 2000 were selected by searching for the terms “facial palsy” and “Guanwasa” in four databases and case reports using Korean medicine moderating variables were extracted by two individual researchers.ResultsThe House Brackmann (H-B) Scale (23 times, 65.7%), and Yanagihara Grading Scale (Y-system) (22 times, 62.8%) were used to assess facial palsy. All case reports used acupuncture, while 19 case reports (51.3%) used electro-acupuncture, and 8 case reports (21.6%) used pharmacopuncture. Main meridian points used were ST6, ST4, GB14, TE23, LI20, BL2. Thirty-two case reports used herbal medicine (86.4%) and both Ligigeopoong-san, Bojunglkgi-tang were used frequently.ConclusionTo treat facial palsy, acupuncture was mainly used in conjunction with electro-acupuncture and pharmacopuncture. Most case reports also used herbal medicine.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
June, 2020
Vol.23 No.2

eISSN 2234-6856

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  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Current and Future molecular mechanism in Inflammation and Arthritis

    Vikash Sharma1, Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Shiv Shankar Shukla1, and Ravindra Kumar Pandey1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 54-61 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.009

    Abstract : Inflammation is an immune response of the human body but excessive inflammation is taken as a major factor in the development of many diseases including autoimmune disorders, cancer and nerve disorders etc. In this regards the need is to suppress the inflammatory response. Suppression of extra or imperfect inflammatory response is not a big deal provided there is an exact knowledge of particular target in the body. Recent advancements in Pharmacological aspect made the therapy with improved outcomes in number of patients. Anticytokine therapy might be one of the important and novel approaches for inflammation and Arthritis. This can be achieved only when we go through the pathophysiology of expression and identification of mediators. Let’s take an example of cytokine like interleukins (IL), chemokines, interferons (INF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α), growth factors, and colony stimulating factors) release pathway which is a major signalling protein in inflammatory response. In the present study we have reviewed the recent pharmacological therapeutic advancement, inflammatory mediators, receptors, and major signalling pathways. Such information will not only provide the idea about the mechanism of action of Pharmaceuticals and molecular targets but also it provides a new aspect for drug designing and new corrective approaches in existing clinical medicines. This study will be a source of good information for the researchers working in the area of drug designing and molecular Pharmacology especially in anti-inflammatory and anti arthritic medicines for target based therapy.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-03-31

    Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

    Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

    Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

    Abstract
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  • Original Article2019-10-01

    Evaluation of the Single-Dose Toxicity of TA Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Ji Hye Hwang1,*, Hyo Won Jung2, and Chul Jung3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2019; 22(3): 171-175 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.023

    Abstract : ObjectivesTA is a polyherbal extract comprising seven herbs, typically used for the pharmacopuncture treatment of patients with traffic accident-related injuries and musculoskeletal diseases. This animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety of the TA extract, using a single-dose toxicity test.MethodsThe dose range and sampling time were first established. Six-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were administered 1.0 mL of TA or normal saline (control), intramuscularly, for the single-dose toxicity test. The general condition, mortality, and histology of all rats were observed for 2 weeks.ResultsNo abnormal symptoms or deaths were observed in any group. The body weights of the rats in the TA and control groups were similar. No significant differences in histopathology were observed between the groups.ConclusionOur study indicates that 1.0 mL of TA extract may be safely administered for pharmacopuncture for treatment of patients in traditional medicine clinics.

    Abstract
  • Opinions2020-06-30
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Current and Future molecular mechanism in Inflammation and Arthritis

    Vikash Sharma1, Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Shiv Shankar Shukla1, and Ravindra Kumar Pandey1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 54-61 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.009

    Abstract : Inflammation is an immune response of the human body but excessive inflammation is taken as a major factor in the development of many diseases including autoimmune disorders, cancer and nerve disorders etc. In this regards the need is to suppress the inflammatory response. Suppression of extra or imperfect inflammatory response is not a big deal provided there is an exact knowledge of particular target in the body. Recent advancements in Pharmacological aspect made the therapy with improved outcomes in number of patients. Anticytokine therapy might be one of the important and novel approaches for inflammation and Arthritis. This can be achieved only when we go through the pathophysiology of expression and identification of mediators. Let’s take an example of cytokine like interleukins (IL), chemokines, interferons (INF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α), growth factors, and colony stimulating factors) release pathway which is a major signalling protein in inflammatory response. In the present study we have reviewed the recent pharmacological therapeutic advancement, inflammatory mediators, receptors, and major signalling pathways. Such information will not only provide the idea about the mechanism of action of Pharmaceuticals and molecular targets but also it provides a new aspect for drug designing and new corrective approaches in existing clinical medicines. This study will be a source of good information for the researchers working in the area of drug designing and molecular Pharmacology especially in anti-inflammatory and anti arthritic medicines for target based therapy.

    Abstract
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