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Dec, 2020 Vol.23 No. 4

  • JoP
    Review Article2020-12-31

    Different Point of View to the Autoimmune Diseases and Treatment with Acupuncture

    Betül Battaloğlu İnanç
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 187-193 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.187

    Abstract : Objectives: It was aimed to investigate the basic action mechanism of the autoimmune diseases and common features of all diseases. Autoimmune disease are classified organ specific and systemic.Methods: These diseases are seen systemic and disease start locations, origins seem differently. This makes learning and understanding difficult. Autoimmune diseases investi-gated for easier understanding. It was noticed that, autoimmune diseases’ starting places are specific and same all of them. This remarkable point is very important for acupuncture also. So; whole literatüre was researched and important point was found.Results: Whole autoimmune diseases are attack to mesodermal layers and mesodermal origin organs of the body’s. The common property of all these disease are same; Diseases start from the mesoderm and mesodermal layer even though their organ origins’ belongs to different germ layer. From this point of view, we were able to classify autoimmune dis-eases simply and it was planned how can we effect body in this context with acupuncture.Conclusion: And, when immunity comes into question, induction of adaptive immunity is depend on antigen presentation to T cells and this situation take place in the lymph node (LN) and also in the skin.When we sank the acupuncture needle into skin, signals create and start mesodermal contacts, during this time mesenchymal origin’ autoimmune cells are regulated with this signals.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Review Article2020-12-31

    The Quality Specialities in Turkiye’s Honies for Apitherapy

    Betül Battaloğlu İnanç
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 194-200 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.194

    Abstract : Objectives: In this study, the content of the honey produced by the flora of Turkey’, physi-cal, chemical and biological research aimed at active properties.Methods: Searched the database EMBASE/Pubmed and Turkish Medicine Index research article about Turkiye honeys’ specialities. Results: Different botanical sources were caused, different kinds of chemical composi-tions of the honeys. The amount of HMF, pH, moisture, and acidity are the chemical qulity criteria of the honey. Carbohydrates are seem the most important components of honey. The glycemic index of the consumed honey is important. Turkiye’s honey quality seems ap-ropiate for using apitherapy.Conclusion: Honey is the most important product of beekeeping all over the world in terms of economy and health. Manufacturers of honey should be careful while producing honey. They should be avoided unhealty situations and they should be obey the rules. These rules are the basis for protecting our health by consuming bee products.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-12-31

    The Research Trends of Pharmacopuncture Therapy on Cervical Pain Caused by Traffic Accidents

    Dong-young Kim1, Seung-hyo Hong1, Soo-yeon Han2, Won-young Kim3, Seo-hye Oh4, Hyung-woo Lee5, Hyun-su Woo6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 201-211 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.201

    Abstract : Objectives: The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review Korean domestic stud-ies and investigate the research trends of pharmacopuncture therapy on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents. Methods: Domestic studies between February 1999 and May 2020 from four Korean databases were searched with combinations of keywords ‘cervical pain’, ‘traffic accident’, ‘whiplash injury’, and ‘pharmacopuncture’.Results: 17 studies were selected for review, including 7 randomized controlled trials, 5 retrospective observational studies, 3 case reports, and 2 non-randomized controlled trials. Each study was reviewed by published year, study type, types of pharmacopuncture solu-tions, selected acupuncture points, dosage of pharmacopuncture solutions, frequency of treatment, concurrent treatments, outcome measurements, and the effectiveness of phar-macopuncture therapy. The results are as follows: (1) It showed that the total number of published studies had increased slightly in the last 10 years compared to the previous de-cade. (2) The pharmacopuncture solutions used in the studies were in the following order: Bee-Venom (蜂毒), Jungsongouhyul (中性瘀血), Hwangryunhaedoktang (黃連解毒湯) and Soyeom (消炎). Frequently used acupuncture points were GB20, GV21, A-shi point, GV16, EX-B2, and SI15 in order. (3) The most commonly used total injection dosage was 1.0 cc at a time, and the frequency of treatment was twice a week. (4) Concurrent treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy and Chuna manual therapy were per-formed in all 17 studies. (5) Pharmacopuncture therapy showed positive effects on cervical pain caused by traffic accidents in all 17 studies reviewed.Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture therapy was effective in cervical pain caused by traffic ac-cidents in all 17 studies selected. Further studies will be needed using more larger scales and more objective data to confirm the effectiveness of pharmacopuncture therapy and to generalize its application.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    Cytotoxic Effect of Bee (A. mellifera) Venom on Cancer Cell Lines

    Sima Khalilifard Borojeni1, Hossein Zolfagharian1*, Mahdi Babaie1,2, Iraj Javadi3
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 212-219 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.212

    Abstract : Objectives: Nowadays cancer treatment is an important challenge in the medical world that needs better therapies. Many active secretions produced by insects such as honey bees used to discover new anticancer drugs. Bee venom (BV) has a potent anti inflamma- tory, anti cancer and tumor effects. The aim of present study is evaluation of anticancer effects induced by Apis mellifera venom (AmV) on cell Lines.Methods: AmV was selected for study on cancer cell lines. Total protein, molecular weight and LD50 of crude venom were determined. Then, cells were grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. The A549, HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cell Lines were exposed by different concentration of AmV. The morphology of cells was determined and cell viability was studed by MTT assay. Evaluation of cell death was determined by and DNA fragmentation.Results: The results from MTT assay showed that 3.125 µg/mL of A549, 12.5 for HeLa and 6.25 µg/mL of MDA-MB-231 killed 50% of cells (p < 0.05). Morphological analysis and the results from hoescht staining and DNA fragmentation indicated that cell death induced by AmV was significantly apoptosis.Conclusion: The data showed that using lower dosage of AmV during treatment period cause inhibition of proliferation in time and dose dependant manner. Findings indicated that some ingredients of AmV have anticancer effects and with further investigation it can be used in production of anticancer drugs.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    The Effects of Myrtle (Myrtus communis) and Clindamycin Topical Solution in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Acne Vulgaris: A Comparative Split-Face Study

    Mahboobeh Salmanian1,2, Laila Shirbeigi3, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian1,2, Parvin Mansouri4, Mohammad Azizkhani5, Shiva Alavi4, Ali Ghobadi1,2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 220-229 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.220

    Abstract : Objectives: Although Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease, which its standard treatment causes therapeutic limitations and some common adverse effects, medicinal plants can be effective in treatment with low adverse effects as combination therapy. Myrtle (Myrtus Communis) has some beneficial properties, which has been administered topically and orally for some skin diseases in Persian medicine. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of Myrtle formula and 1% clindamycin topical solution.Methods: This was a split-face clinical trial that was done on 55 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris for 16 weeks. The patients received topical Myrtle solution to the right side of the face (group 1) and clindamycin solution to the left side (group 2) twice daily for 12 weeks. All participants were examined for the acne severity index (ASI) and total acne lesions counting (TLC) at certain times during the study. Then, they stopped using them for four weeks. They also did not take the drug in the final four weeks of the study.Results: Forty-eight patients completed the study for 16 weeks; 40 (83.2%) patients were female and the rest of them were male. The mean age and standard deviation were 25.62 ± 7.62 years. After 12 weeks, the percentage changes of comedones, inflammatory lesions, ASI and TLC were significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.001). The percentage change of inflammatory lesions and ASI decrease was significantly higher in the group 1 (p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the two groups. There was a more significant decrease in sebum percentage change in the group 1 (p = 0.003).Conclusion: Myrtle lotion was effective and safe for the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    Anthelmintic and Analgesic Activities of Trachyspermum Khasianum H. Wolff

    Innocent Sutnga*, Balari Marbaniang, Gautom Hazarika, Priyanka Goswami, Ananta Choudhury
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 230-236 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.230

    Abstract : Objectives: Trachyspermum khasianum H. Wolff is a rare medicinal plant characteristically used by the traditional healers in traditional medicine for the treatment of throat-pain, toothache, and stomach ache. The study was designed to determine the anthelmintic and analgesic properties of the aerial parts of Trachyspermum khasianum H. Wolff (Family: Apiaceae). The aqueous and ethanol extract of T. khasianum H. Wolff was prepared and subjected for evaluation to determine the possible therapeutic effects.Methods: Anthelmintic activities of the extracts were determined by observing the time taken to paralyze and the time taken for the death of earthworms (Eisenia foetida) as compared to the standard drug–Albendazole (20 mg/ml) and control. Analgesic potential of the extracts was evaluated using Eddy’s hot plate method to understand the analgesic activity in rats (Wistar rats) at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight doses and compared with the standard reference (Diclofenac sodium: 10 mg/kg of animals).Results: The extracts showed a significant dose-dependent anthelmintic effect at the different concentrations (10, 20, and 40) mg/ml, compared to that of the standard drug (20 mg/ml). Also, the results suggested that the plant extracts possess significantly analgesic activity in rats.Conclusion: The studies indicate that Trachyspermum khasianum shows anthelmintic and potent analgesic activities. Further research should be carried out to identify the specific phytoconstituents responsible for both analgesic and anthelmintic activities and its possible mechanism of action.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    Genotoxicity Evaluation of Capsaicin-Containing (CP) Pharmacopuncture, in an In Vivo Micronucleus Test

    Ji Hye Hwang1, Jaseung Ku2, Chul Jung3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 237-246 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.237

    Abstract : Objectives: Capsaicin-containing (CP) pharmacopuncture was developed to treat neuro-pathic pain. This study was conducted to assess the toxicity of CP extract for pharmaco-puncture, using a micronucleus test.Methods: First, a dose range finding study was conducted. Then an in vivo micronucleus test was performed to determine the induction of micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells after intramuscular administration of CP twice with a 24-hour interval to 8-week-old ICR mice. A high dose of 0.2 mL/animal was selected, and this was sequentially diluted by ap-plying a geometric ratio of 2 to produce two lower dose levels (0.1 and 0.05 mL/animal). In addition, negative and positive control groups were set up, and an HPLC analysis was conducted to confirm the capsaicin content of CP.Results: The incidence of micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in polychromatic erythrocytes in the CP-treated group was similar to that in the negative-control group, while that in the positive-control group was significantly greater. In addition, the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to total erythrocytes in the CP treatment group and the positive control group was not significantly different from the negative control group. In the HPLC analysis, capsaicin in the CP was identified through a comparison with the retention time of the capsaicin standard of 27 min. Conclusion: CP did not show any indication of any potential to induce micronuclei forma-tion in bone marrow cells of ICR mice under the conditions of this study. Further toxicity studies are necessary to ensure the safety of the use of CP in clinical practice.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    Scolopendra Pharmacopuncture Combined with Electroacupuncture for the Treatment of Ganglion Cysts: A Retrospective Study

    Seon Choe1,2†, Ui Min Jerng3†, Jeong Hwan Park2, Sungha Kim2, Sungchul Kim4, Jinbok Lee5, Jun-Hwan Lee2*, Minseop Shin6*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 247-251 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.247

    Abstract : Objectives: Ganglion cysts require a sustainable treatment that suppresses their frequent recurrence. This study aimed to explore the clinical effects of Scolopendra pharmacopuncture (SP) and electroacupuncture on ganglion cysts.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patient records and follow-up reports for 20 patients with wrist ganglion cysts who received SP and electroacupuncture from April 2016 to March 2017. The cyst diameter, recurrence, visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain, the Korean version of the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (K-DASH) score, and the Korean version of the patientrated wrist evaluation (K-PRWE) score before and after treatment were noted.Results: After treatment, the cyst diameter decreased significantly from 13.61 ± 6.41 mm to 5.15 ± 6.18 mm (p < 0.001), and VAS score for pain decreased from 1.31 ± 1.77 to 0.41 ± 0.33 (p = 0.021). Further, the K-DASH score decreased significantly from 8.97 ± 12.66 to 2.21 ± 7.39 (p = 0.016), and score for the function subscale of K-PRWE decreased from 11.37 ± 4.48 to 9.1 ± 3.67 (p = 0.046). No recurrences were reported from the followed-up patients. Any complication related to SP or electroacupuncture was not observed, except mild rash, itching, and swelling at the injection site in four patients.Conclusion: Combination of SP and electroacupuncture may be effective in treating ganglion cysts; further prospective studies with large population are needed to clarify the effect of SP and electroacupuncture.

    Abstract
  • JoP
    Original Article2020-12-31

    Perception on the Traditional Korean Medicine According to the Existence of a Chronic Disease

    Jihye Kim1, Minjung Park2, Angela Dong-Min Sung3, Kyeong Han Kim4*, Soo-Hyun Sung3*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 252-261 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.252

    Abstract : Objectives: Chronic diseases (CDs) continue to increase due to advances in medicine and increase in lifespan, affecting quality of life and resulting in economic loss through treat-ment costs. This study addressed the perception characteristics of the effectiveness of Korean medicine (KM) based on the existence of a CD to determine the national prefer-ence for KM treatment.Methods: Using data from the 2017 National Survey of KM Usage, we evaluated the per-ception on treatment effect of 16 diseases by dividing them into the CD group and the non-CD group. Response reliability was verified by applying the chi-square test (χ2-test) analysis method of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical pro-gram.Results: The analysis of the perception on effectiveness of KM for patients with CD (n = 1,050, 21.0%) and for patients with non-CD (n = 3,950, 79.0%) showed an overall similar trend for all the 16 diseases. The response rates of having some treatment effect were high for nine diseases namely, disc-related disease (CD: 70.7%, non-CD: 73.1%), osteoar-thritis (CD: 72.3%, non-CD: 72.4%), frozen shoulder and shoulder pain (CD: 79.6%, non-CD: 81.4%), back pain (CD: 84.6%, non-CD: 85.0%), sprain (CD: 84.8%, non-CD: 84.1%), facial nerve paralysis (CD: 73.5%, non-CD: 71.7%), stroke (CD: 66.2%, non-CD: 62.8%), digestive disease (CD: 53.3%, non-CD: 50.0%), and common cold and rhinitis (CD: 44.7%, non-CD: 44.8%).Conclusion: The present results found that there was little difference in the perception on effectiveness of KM for each of the 16 diseases in patients with CD and non-CD, however, 70% or more of the respondents recognized some treatment effect on musculoskeletal disorders, regardless of the existence of CD. Preferential political support for KM treat-ment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders is recommended.

    Abstract
  • Original Article2020-12-31

    The Analysis of Korean Clinical Studies on the Effect of Pharmacopuncture for Whiplash Injury after Traffic Accidents

    Jung Min Yun1, Na Yeon Hur1, Kyeong Han Kim2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 262-272 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.262

    Abstract : Objectives: Whiplash injury is one of the major diseases in recent times because of in-creasing traffic accidents. This review aims to analyze the overall trend of studies on phar-macopuncture for whiplash injury after traffic accidents.Methods: We searched through 4 Korean electronic databases from 2001 up to October 2020 for relevant clinical studies for whiplash injury after traffic accidents, regardless of the patients’ age, gender, or race. We included studies that had an intervention group re-ceiving pharmacopuncture therapy with or without other additional treatments, and also included studies that had a control group receiving sham treatment or active treatment such as physical therapy and herbal medication. For the clinical outcomes, we did not place any restrictions on evaluation scales if they are objective metrics.Results: We included 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 non-randomized con-trolled trials (nRCTs). 10 nRCTs were divided into 4 categories that were case-control stud-ies, case series, case report, and retrospective observational study. In RCTs, Hwangryun-haedoktang (黃蓮解毒湯) pharmacopuncture was the most frequently used. In nRCTs, Jungsong-ouhyul (中性瘀血) pharmacopuncture, and bee venom pharmacopuncture were the most frequently used. As target points of Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points, Jianjing (GB21), and Fengchi (GB20) were the most frequently used. As target points of Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture, Ashi-points were the most frequently used. And as target points of Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Fengchi (GB20) was the most fre-quently used. Conclusion: Hwangryun-haedoktang pharmacopuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Jungsong-ouhyul pharmacopuncture were mainly used for whiplash injury, and their usual target points were Jianjing (GB21), Fengchi (GB20), and Ashi-points. However, a high level of evidence should be conducted through studies with systematic methodology in the future.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2020-12-31

    Mesotherapy with Snake Venom Pharmacopuncture to Treat Hand Eczema: Two Cases Report

    Sungha Kim1, Jinbok Lee2, Minseop Shin2*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(4): 273-276 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.4.273

    Abstract : Hand eczema is a recurrent and resistant disease that seriously affects the quality of life of patients; currently, there are no ideal treatments for hand eczema. Here, we describe two patients who presented with hand eczema to illustrate the potential efficacy of mesotherapy with snake venom pharmacopuncture (SVP). A 23-year-old woman (Case 1) and a 47-year-old woman (Case 2) presented to the clinic with symptoms of pruritic rash, blis-ters, and itchiness on both the hands and the left hand, respectively. Both patients were diagnosed with hand eczema based on the physical examination of blisters and redness only on the hands. The patients underwent 1 month (Case 1) and 1 week (Case 2) of mesotherapy with SVP. After treatment, the lesions completely improved and did not recur at 1 year of follow-up. These outcomes suggest that mesotherapy with SVP may be effective for the resolution of hand eczema; however, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
December, 2020
Vol.23 No.4

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
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  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-09-30
    JoP

    Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Dorema Species (Apiaceae): A Review

    Elaheh Zibaee1, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri2, Zahra Boghrati1, Faeghe Farhadi3, Mahin Ramezani4,5, Seyed Ahmad Emami1*, Amirhossein Sahebkar6,7,8,9
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 91-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.91

    Abstract : The application of antique medical instructions, practices, skills and knowledge has been considered as the most affordable treatment in many developing countries. The use of these preparations and prescriptions over generations has made a useful and valuable guide for drug discovery in modern medicine. Medical herbs have been of a high importance for this purpose. The genus Dorema, of Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) has a wide use in ethnobotany and traditional medicine around the world. It has been used as a treatment for CNS disease, convulsion, upper respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorder and high blood sugar. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations have reported Dorema species to contain a wide range of constituents including terpenes, coumarins and phenolic compounds. The current review summarizes comprehensive information regarding botany, phytochemistry andpharmacological aspects of Dorema spp.

    Abstract
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  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Abstract : Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). Currently, the management of patients with COVID-19 depends mainly on repurposed drugs which include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, umifenovir, interferon-α, interferon-β and others. In this review, the potential of Nigella sativa (black cumin seeds) to treat the patients with COVID-19 analyzed, as it has shown to possess antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive, antipyretic and analgesic activities. PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ) and reference lists were searched to identify articles associated with antiviral and other properties of N.sativa related to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Various randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, case reports and in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that N.sativa has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, antihistaminic, antitussive activities related to causative oraganism and signs and symptoms of COVID-19. N. sativa could be used as an adjuvant therapy along with repurposed conventional drugs to manage the patients with COVID-19.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-09-30

    A Literature Analysis on Medicinal Use and Research of Cannabis in the Meiji Era of Japan

    Byung-Soo Ahn1,4, Seokhyun Kang2, Kyung Hoon Lee3, Seoyoon Kim1, Jin Sung Park1, Hyung-Sik Seo5*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 142-157 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.142

    Abstract : Cannabis is a historical plant which has been used as a medicine in East Asia. These days, there are active debates about using cannabis in clinical field. Collecting and comparing cannabis research articles which had been published in the Opening of Japan to spot the interactions between the traditional medicine of Japan, Rangaku which was established in Edo Period and the European medicine which is transferred after Perry Expedition is academically meaningful. This study searched publications, which were listed on Open-Access databases by Dec. 11th, 2019. We collected research articles which had been published from January 3rd, 1867 to July 30th, 1912 also known as Meiji era and uploaded on Open-Access databases. Our searching databases were J-stage, CiNii (Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator), Tokyo Metropolitan Library, The National Diet Library, IRDB (Institutional Repositories DataBase) and KAKEN (Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research Database). Searching keywords were cannabis, hemp and all their Japanese synonyms and available combinations. We selected final 15 studies which met every selection criteria in the 346,393 collected studies. Cannabis was prescribed in Meiji era of Japan to alleviate pain and cure the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and nervous system diseases such as indigestion, asthma, tuberculosis, gonorrhea and its complications, insomnia, and nervous prostration. Cannabis was medically used in Meiji era of Japan and the reporting and sharing of its clinical effect was published on the medical journals like present days. There were already Cannabis regulations in that era, but its medicinal use was more liberated than nowadays. It may be a chance to reconsider the current legal system, which strictly controls the use of Cannabis.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-09-30
    JoP

    Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Dorema Species (Apiaceae): A Review

    Elaheh Zibaee1, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri2, Zahra Boghrati1, Faeghe Farhadi3, Mahin Ramezani4,5, Seyed Ahmad Emami1*, Amirhossein Sahebkar6,7,8,9
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(3): 91-123 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.3.91

    Abstract : The application of antique medical instructions, practices, skills and knowledge has been considered as the most affordable treatment in many developing countries. The use of these preparations and prescriptions over generations has made a useful and valuable guide for drug discovery in modern medicine. Medical herbs have been of a high importance for this purpose. The genus Dorema, of Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) has a wide use in ethnobotany and traditional medicine around the world. It has been used as a treatment for CNS disease, convulsion, upper respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorder and high blood sugar. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations have reported Dorema species to contain a wide range of constituents including terpenes, coumarins and phenolic compounds. The current review summarizes comprehensive information regarding botany, phytochemistry andpharmacological aspects of Dorema spp.

    Abstract
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