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Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
June, 2020
Vol.23 No.2

pISSN 2093-6966
eISSN 2234-6856
Quarterly

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  • Systematic Review2020-06-30

    Bee Venom Acupuncture for Shoulder Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Lei Shen1,†, Jong Ha Lee2,†, Jong Cheon Joo1, Soo Jung Park3,*, and Yung Sun Song4,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 44-53 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.008

    Abstract : ObjectivesOur review aimed to summarize and evaluate evidence on the effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) in the treatment of shoulder pain.MethodsRandomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of BVA on shoulder pain were searched up to October 2019 in 11 electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CiNii, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Kmbase, NDSL, RISS, OASIS). The methodological quality of the included RCTs were evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsSeven studies were included in the review, and four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing BVA plus conventional therapy (CT) with saline injection plus CT, it showed an effect in favor of BVA plus CT in visual analog scale (VAS) and pain rating scale (PRS) (p = 0.02, p = 0.009, respectively). Comparing BVA plus physiotherapy (PT) with saline injection plus PT, it showed that there was no significant difference in VAS and verbal rating scale (VRS) between the two groups.ConclusionThis systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that BVA could be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for shoulder pain.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Current and Future molecular mechanism in Inflammation and Arthritis

    Vikash Sharma1, Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Shiv Shankar Shukla1, and Ravindra Kumar Pandey1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 54-61 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.009

    Abstract : Inflammation is an immune response of the human body but excessive inflammation is taken as a major factor in the development of many diseases including autoimmune disorders, cancer and nerve disorders etc. In this regards the need is to suppress the inflammatory response. Suppression of extra or imperfect inflammatory response is not a big deal provided there is an exact knowledge of particular target in the body. Recent advancements in Pharmacological aspect made the therapy with improved outcomes in number of patients. Anticytokine therapy might be one of the important and novel approaches for inflammation and Arthritis. This can be achieved only when we go through the pathophysiology of expression and identification of mediators. Let’s take an example of cytokine like interleukins (IL), chemokines, interferons (INF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α), growth factors, and colony stimulating factors) release pathway which is a major signalling protein in inflammatory response. In the present study we have reviewed the recent pharmacological therapeutic advancement, inflammatory mediators, receptors, and major signalling pathways. Such information will not only provide the idea about the mechanism of action of Pharmaceuticals and molecular targets but also it provides a new aspect for drug designing and new corrective approaches in existing clinical medicines. This study will be a source of good information for the researchers working in the area of drug designing and molecular Pharmacology especially in anti-inflammatory and anti arthritic medicines for target based therapy.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-03-31

    Nicotine Addiction: Neurobiology and Mechanism

    Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Vikas Sharma1, Ravindra Kumar Pandey2, and Shiv Shankar Shukla2,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(1): 1-7 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.001

    Abstract : Nicotine, primary component of tobaco produces craving and withdrawal effect both in humans and animals. Nicotine shows a close resemblance to other addictive drugs in molecular, neuroanatomical and pharmacological, particularly the drugs which enhances the cognitive functions. Nicotine mainly shows its action through specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors located in brain. It stimulates presynaptic acetylcholine receptors thereby enhancing Ach release and metabolism. Dopaminergic system is also stimulated by it, thus increasing the concentration of dopamine in nuclear accumbens. This property of nicotine according to various researchers is responsible for reinforcing behavioral change and dependence of nicotine. Various researchers have also depicted that some non dopaminergic systems are also involved for rewarding effect of nicotinic withdrawal.Neurological systems such as GABAergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and brain stem cholinergic may also be involved to mediate the actions of nicotine. Further, the neurobiological pathway to nicotine dependence might perhaps be appropriate to the attachment of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, peruse by stimulation of dopaminergic system and activation of general pharmacological changes that might be responsible for nicotine addiction. It is also suggested that MAO A and B both are restrained by nicotine. This enzyme helps in degradation dopamine, which is mainly responsible for nicotinic actions and dependence. Various questions remain uninsurable to nicotine mechanism and require more research. Also, various genetic methods united with modern instrumental analysis might result for more authentic information for nicotine addiction.

    Abstract
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  • Original Article2019-10-01

    Evaluation of the Single-Dose Toxicity of TA Pharmacopuncture in Rats

    Ji Hye Hwang1,*, Hyo Won Jung2, and Chul Jung3,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2019; 22(3): 171-175 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.023

    Abstract : ObjectivesTA is a polyherbal extract comprising seven herbs, typically used for the pharmacopuncture treatment of patients with traffic accident-related injuries and musculoskeletal diseases. This animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety of the TA extract, using a single-dose toxicity test.MethodsThe dose range and sampling time were first established. Six-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were administered 1.0 mL of TA or normal saline (control), intramuscularly, for the single-dose toxicity test. The general condition, mortality, and histology of all rats were observed for 2 weeks.ResultsNo abnormal symptoms or deaths were observed in any group. The body weights of the rats in the TA and control groups were similar. No significant differences in histopathology were observed between the groups.ConclusionOur study indicates that 1.0 mL of TA extract may be safely administered for pharmacopuncture for treatment of patients in traditional medicine clinics.

    Abstract
  • Opinions2020-06-30
  • Review Article2020-06-30

    Current and Future molecular mechanism in Inflammation and Arthritis

    Vikash Sharma1, Raj Kumar Tiwari1, Shiv Shankar Shukla1, and Ravindra Kumar Pandey1,*
    J Pharmacopuncture 2020; 23(2): 54-61 https://doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2020.23.009

    Abstract : Inflammation is an immune response of the human body but excessive inflammation is taken as a major factor in the development of many diseases including autoimmune disorders, cancer and nerve disorders etc. In this regards the need is to suppress the inflammatory response. Suppression of extra or imperfect inflammatory response is not a big deal provided there is an exact knowledge of particular target in the body. Recent advancements in Pharmacological aspect made the therapy with improved outcomes in number of patients. Anticytokine therapy might be one of the important and novel approaches for inflammation and Arthritis. This can be achieved only when we go through the pathophysiology of expression and identification of mediators. Let’s take an example of cytokine like interleukins (IL), chemokines, interferons (INF), tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α), growth factors, and colony stimulating factors) release pathway which is a major signalling protein in inflammatory response. In the present study we have reviewed the recent pharmacological therapeutic advancement, inflammatory mediators, receptors, and major signalling pathways. Such information will not only provide the idea about the mechanism of action of Pharmaceuticals and molecular targets but also it provides a new aspect for drug designing and new corrective approaches in existing clinical medicines. This study will be a source of good information for the researchers working in the area of drug designing and molecular Pharmacology especially in anti-inflammatory and anti arthritic medicines for target based therapy.

    Abstract
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